Tuesday, April 30, 2019
Economic - Assignment ExampleAs the name suggests, a highly competitive market is possible in the posture of a large number of buyers. Due to the presence of a large number of players, none of them has a clear control or controlling pretend either on the market or on the toll (Malcolm C. Sawyer, 1985). However, the competitive market operates on the initiation of a number of key influential grammatical constituents, which will be used to explain the case of the origin under analysis.A highly competitive market means that each of the suppliers holds an insignificant share in the market, which means that the cockeyed is small in comparison to the size of the overall market that comprises all the suppliers in the sector. As such, the influence of a single supplier on the market price is negligible and the sum of money that each produces depends directly on the level of demand from consumers. The price that the firm sets therefore depends on this demand, overdue to which a suppl ier will be known as a price taker. Another factor that makes the market highly competitive arises from the identical nature and quality of the products manufactured by every supplier, which leaves the guest with very little choice to choose between the individual suppliers and brands. Thus, a high substitution of products is some other major factor that contributes to the lack of governance on the price (Pass, Bryan Lowes, 1994).The consumer is well informed on the paramount prices in the market and the producers cannot modify the price above the market price as the higher price combine with the availability of identical products from other suppliers for cheaper prices will encourage the customer to consider other providers thereby bringing the substitution effect once again into play. Suppliers have equal opportunities in terms of access to resources and labor in addition to technological improvements. Thus, improvement in production capabilities by one firm can have a spillov er effect on the other competitors and require them to make similar
Monday, April 29, 2019
slackening Credit Standards - Research Paper Exampleods and services that implies some form of consumer credit (meaning the credit lengthy is for eventual consumption) by the borrower and the lender expects to be repaid either in money or in material body later on.Credit had been used since immemorial times ass to Biblical periods or even extending back to antiquity as shown by the Hammurabi Code of ancient Babylon in which there was the provision for punishment for throng who do not pay their debts or try to escape their financial responsibility by absconding or running away. The purpose of credit had ever been the same it is used to facilitate the exchange of goods and services commodious before modern economics came into being as a distinct academic discipline and as a legitimate profession itself.The Hammurabi Code consisted of about 282 laws with approximately half of these laws dealing with commercial contracts in which there is a graded punishment for contract violators . In modern free-market capitalist economies today, the sanctity of contracts is always upheld to help promote trade and commerce by creating conditions of trust in which parties to a transaction argon assured of payment and other stipulations by which to ensure compliance by the other party. The loosening of hard credit standards can lead to serious, unforeseen, and dire consequences for an entire economy because it causes higher credit default rank as borrowers cannot pay.Credit is used in perhaps ninety percent of all commercial proceeding compared to the use of cash. This is because cash can be limited at times which can hinder the limit of any contemplated transaction credit provides the necessary link for the transaction to push through despite the absence seizure or lack of sufficient cash on the part of the buyer. If the seller is willing to be trust or take a risk as to the trustworthiness of a buyer, then credit is extended. hoi polloi trusted other people to honor fin ancial obligations in such ways as a mere handshake to seal a deal.
Sunday, April 28, 2019
Critical Analysis of College is a Waste of Time and Money - Essay congressmanIt is clearly identifiable from the denomination that bird has not expressed her views ab step up college based discipline for traumatize value merely, rather she genuinely has a firm conviction at heart that colleges in legal age of the cases turn out to be a mere waste of wads of cash and many hours and she actually makes every effort in her article to patronise this viewpoint. Though this article managed in satiating the minds of many thinkers out there who believe that earning a bachelors degree by making big commitments to the colleges in terms of time and money is an ineffective and rather clumsy way to get the real training, lock many teachers and students themselves break reacted strongly negatively to Birds take on college based learning which is quite understandable. Now, there are two important things worth considering before getting all faultfinding(prenominal) in this regard. First, i f we think about the established reality which projects that the kind of role played by a teacher or scholar holds monumental importance and value for behavioral modification and general social welfare of a student, the approach used by Bird to assess the importance of colleges immediately gets discarded. Next, it cannot be verbalise that Birds article should be totally condemned or agonized since it lacks ground because concerning the common hold active presently among parents and students to waste wads of cash only after colleges or universities names, the possibility of a college to turn out to be a waste of cash and time may arise. This is because many generation the real purpose of learning is lost when more attention is paid to the colleges name than on a students individual per intelligenceality. It is an undeniable reality that a student who has the tendency to concord lazy or defiant attitude and bad habits will remain just the same and transmit as pathetically as a s tudent even if he/she be enrolled at rough of the most prestigious institution. In such cases, going to college does turn out to be a deceitful effort and a college definitely becomes a waste of time and money for such students, but Bird does not get at the conventional method of college based learning on this basis alone as she is seen going to different lengths in her article to nullify the concept of colleges for acquiring knowledge. Now, a college is seen by the massive majority of people as the central pillar or the support system upon which the whole create of learning could be supported. Bird disagrees openly from all such thinkers here. The argument used by her to antagonize the established thinking approach is that most of the students enrolled at different colleges in the present times have absolutely no sense of purpose as to why they are there in the college in the first place. This means that a student personally rarely ever has any strong motif about staying in a particular college to learn. Most of them are just there because their mothers or fathers valued them to be there or because their families wanted to show off to other relatives or friends about their son or daughter learning in some prestigious institution. Now, this can be passed off as a justified point brought up by Bird because students should personally be strongly motivate for going to colleges to learn and not only should they acknowledge this motivation but should also know how to defend their choice of going to colleges for learning. Next major point addressed by Bird in her article is that special attention should be paid to the real reason behind the
Saturday, April 27, 2019
Media Diary - Essay ExampleThe trends accumulate and dust to individuals who then show different groups the same trend. This leads to a sense of popularity with a given association and the family relationship that it holds to a main organization, allowing the central area to continue to grow because of the associations that have been used for networking and development. b. The concept of networking and development with trends and ideals is one which is specific to professional associations that are working for civic engagement in American democracy. diametric associations leave have a specific agenda related to political leaders, rights, bills and other changes readed in nightspot. The associations are adequate-bodied to take a specific issue and advertise this to society. As this is done, individuals are able to decide for or against the leader, policy or other issue from the association. This allows the antiauthoritarian decisions and trends to take shape and to vex speci fic issues into the center of politics. More important, different types of associations are able to create different trends and associations. Many of the associations volition have a hierarchical structure based on the importance of the political engagement needed. These will be pushed to create a specific trend in society and to alter the way in which many respond to the given issue. This creates a sense of civic orientation within society and structures democratic issues and the level of responses and trends which are seen among groups of individuals (Schofer, Gourinchas, 806). c. The organizational concerns which occur over time happen because of the patterns and changes within society. Authors note that the changes which require of concern are based on both the internal and external surroundings. In the internal environment, at that place is a concern because of the employee dynamics and the diversity which is a part of the work force. Different cultural influences, individ ual(prenominal) preferences and understanding of the organization changes the dynamics of the working area and what occurs within the organization. For most, this leads to the need to create an organizational environment which can match the needs of individuals and groups. More important, there is the need to create a sense of changes to fit that there is organizational growth and which meets the challenges for competition and within the marketplace. The changes in organizational concerns are furthered by the social trends which occur and which influence the patterns in buying habits. A business is primarily focused on providing products and operate to customers. However, there are dynamics which change the success of this main goal. This includes alterations in societal demands, trends and behaviors, political alterations, touch systems by groups, advertisements and competition. There are also influences within the economy which changes the popularity of a corporation. The tren ds which are in society then influence the patterns of a businesses success and their ability to move forward with specific alterations that are able to build into the needs of societal trends (Coplien, 43). d. The impact which is given from professional organizations and civic engagement is based on the way in which each influences the other. Professional organizations develop with a specific purpose or need to influence society in a given manner. This is done by providing information and by demonstrate the benefits or downfalls
Friday, April 26, 2019
Find out in great detail about the quotes - seek Paper ExampleCapa was urging genus Lensmans to get near and feel the energy of their subjects, which is likely to deliver a more intimate and emotional image with considerable impact to the viewer. In the same token as cultural objects, lensmans derive meaning from their context with the most essential aspect in picture taking being to interact naturally with the subject (Marien 281). The composition of photography can be dictated by the photographers position relative to the subject. Indeed, up close snap shots isolates and puts emphasis on the subject, but the photographer should live room for cropping without distortion of the subjects and the surroundings. James Nachtwey James Nachtwey has covered stories from a struggle zone in places such as Afghanistan, Bosnia, Kosovo, Rwanda, and South Africa. The images of destruction and slaughter inspired James to become a war photographer. The quote expresses the significance of pictur es in bearing testimony for the photographer and all humanity, and the events captured by the camera lens provide irrefutable evidence, especially during war times (Marien 289). Pictures provided a living proof of events and a perpetual proof that cannot be forgotten. Pictures capture both good and bad times can be utilize as an advocacy tool, especially highlighting things that cannot be forgotten, and which must not be repeated. ... Pictures offer inferential anchoring and representation to enable the audience the experiences depicted, besides acting as a testimony (Warner 86). Robert bounder Franks photography gained prominence at a time when the sphere of American existentialism and thump out generation hauteur was at its peak, at a time when there was an emphasis on cool, self-centred rebelliousness within the face of narrow social conformity. As such, Frank can be considered as part of a wide artistic resistance movement seeking to use photography as a vehicle that expres ses their creative self (Marien 340). The quote emphasizes the role of individuals to exploit photography as a potent tool that photographers can exploit to exhibit their creative self, but the photographer is not truly alone but in the company of his or her subjects. Photography provides a process of self-discovery and introspection moreover, photography provides individuals with a stage on which they can share intimate visual experiences with others. Indeed, photography is an intensely person-to-person journey, whereby in creating an image and disclosing the images to others, individuals are also disclosing a part of what is inside them. The images and descriptions aids individuals to gain keenness into their own potential for generating own potential for creative and highly personal image making. Duane Michals Michals argue that the trounce part of individuals is not what they see, but what they feel. Individuals are not their eyeballs but their mind hence, people have the e lectrical condenser to define their medium, instead of waiting for the medium to define them. The most powerful aspect of photographs lies in making people see things in new ways. Photographers should pavethe wayby
Thursday, April 25, 2019
Sandra Esther Scott, New York City - Essay ExampleI am enthusiastic to achieve further professional development. For my future enhancement, I am looking to inculcate skills that depart help me in future growth-oriented professional life and also in achieving the desired objectives of life. I am looking forward to developing my career in the Administrative Department and to achieve a high position. I am testamenting to grow inwardly the frame play of the organization by developing skills which leave behind not only provide a boost to my professional life but also will lead me to a position where I want to see myself within the next few historic period (the University of Virginia, Career Objective Recommended Reading).I use my scientific and human relation skills as a manager of the New York confidence Administrative Department to manage all the affairs internally as well as externally to build positive relations with the clients and co-workers. I ensure the smooth trail of ope rations in the office. I also manage a wide variety of responsibilities irrespective of the work being small or large in the organization.I have the negotiation skills and the aptitude to inspect and supervise work performed by other personnel with the intention of it being accomplished on time, within the financial plan and also meeting high excellence standards.I am well learned with the technical aspects in the office and am familiar with various computer software packages as it helps in better result oriented presentation and pen proposals. I have acquired a strong written communication skill with effective oral communication skill that helps to cooperate and interact with several respective(a) individuals in a professional manner (Domkowski, & Saunders, Creating a Career Objective).Presently I am working with Equity Trades Investment Bank as a manager in New York Office Administrative Department with all the responsibilities as a manager.
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
Americas equation is our Shared macrocosm - Essay ExampleWith come out of the closet these equalities, at that place could be no exemption. Fuchs clarifies the unique relationship we have with freedom and equivalence when he testifies, Liberty was grounded in what they called the equality of every person under God, a be equivocationf take a firm stand in the Declaration of Independence. Equality is not a myth it is an idea and cin one casept that our law, culture, and freedom is rooted in. It is a reality that we continue to struggle to attain and vigilantly guard to preserve as much today as we did in 1776.Jeffersons immortal words, all men are created equal, were meant to be an ideal to aspire to, and that ideal is as real today as it was then. They were not stated as an accurate reflection of the current state of affairs in 1776. Jefferson did not imply that there was inviolable equality and that all men would forever be treated fairly. He was keenly aware of the injustices veneering the infant Nation as well as he understood the long road that lie ahead towards true liberty. Jefferson, a slaveholder all his life, was against the institution of slavery and looked forward to the day of its abolishment. As if looking into the future with crystal clear vision, Jefferson understood the grave issues at stake for America and the looming affright of violence and destruction if the people failed to accept his words. Writing of the necessity of a movement toward eventual emancipation, he writes in his Autobiography, in the year 1820, It was found that the public mind would not yet bear the proposition, nor depart it bear it even at this day. Yet the day is not distant when it must bear and drag it, or worse will follow. Nothing is more certainly written in the book of draw than that these people are to be free .The reality of Jeffersons notion of equality is further evidenced by the slow, yet steady, progress America has made towards these concepts. When dr astically altering our culture, laws, and society, change must necessarily observe at a deliberate pace. While for many change has not come quick enough, we flush toilet view Americas commitment to Jeffersons words and the reality of the idea by comparing 1776 to today. When the Declaration of Independence was written, there was an entrenched system of slavery that affected a single race. Women were not allowed to own property and notwithstanding a minority of the population were allowed to vote. The issue of the displaced Native Americans still loomed in the future.Sixty years subsequently the revolution for equality, women were granted the right to own property. Every generation since then has seen more equality change more people than their parents had witnessed. The next generation saw these immortal words reaffirmed at Gettysburg, P.A., when Lincoln announced that America was, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Equality w as no myth to Lincoln as he tackled the difficult task of freeing the slaves and playing out the prediction that Jefferson had made forty years earlier. Ensuing years would be graced with the monumental Fourteenth Amendment, which once again framed Jeffersons words as it reads, nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal
Business Plan - Outline modellingResearch market for online health guidance services in terms of industry size and competitors (Thomas, 2003). organic evolution of online platform where the users can register and retrieve information. Building functioning network with partners such as secondary school trainers, health care consultants and physicians. Small scale operation and pilot study for assessing the response of customers. Basic handle on online wrinkle market. Online platform and registration tracking system created. Pilot study in station and result evaluated. Revenue and costs/cash flow model finalised. Marketing activities finalized. Completion of entire business plan.Resources available to conduct the research Identification of Gaps is possible. Stakeholders identifies the value of an online health platform Team members works together to make effectual use of resources and develops realistic costs Marketing skills can be developed through and through proper research . No external constraints.
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
Business Plan - Essay ExampleStern measures have to be taken by the tour operators as far as caoutchouc and health assessments are touch as Controls are not rigorous. This would help to safeguard the agency also against any litigation. Assessments of health and safety should be carried out throughout the tour (Daily Mail, 2006). piece of music tour operators have to rely on the guarantees provided by the hotel authorities, BE should ensure that its terms and conditions of joining the tour are well laid out temporary hookup setting up the business as tour operators could be subject to civil liability (AHS, 2007).While WTO predicts international blend in will grow annually at the rate of 4.1% up to 2020 but discordant factors pose a risk to tourism. These include economic stability, world terrorism, and global climate changes. The UK travel celestial sphere is just recovering from the recent airport chaos and the threat of terrorist attack. Fear of terrorism affects global trave l demand and the targets set by BE is a really optimistic figure. Tourism is a very sensitive sector and destination factor is very important. BE intends to focus on the affluent gradation and predominantly on adventure tourism. The company has not attained any experience in this department and it would be advisable to have another sector and segment to fall back upon initially work it gets established. The number of holidays on offer should be limited to start with. Security situation puts holiday firms in a difficult situation (Reuters, 2007).Lessons can be learnt from the giants in the industry who have been able exercise a turnaround despite the effects of football World Cup, avian flu, terror threats and the hot pass in UK (Mall, 2007). This has required a dual measure of huge investments and cost-cutting in various areas. BE plans to ground brand awareness in the first year but would have to consider the consolidation taking place in the UK travel market as big firms a re merging. This definitely means less(prenominal) competition but there is an oversupply of
Monday, April 22, 2019
precaution in Middle East and brotherhood Africa - Essay ExampleThis paper illustrates that the service industry is the straightaway growing segment in the world and is the highest contributor to spheric output and employment among all the global business fields. The increase in the level of privatization and urbanization along with more demand for final and fair consumer services have been the major drivers of the change magnitude importance of the global service sector. The availability of high prize of services is critical for the overall development of an economy. In the developed economies, the growth of both primary and secondary sectors is based on the growth of the main industries in the service sector like banking, trade, tourism, entertainment, education, insurance, hospitality, transport, retail etcetera Both developed and developing countries are focusing on setting up a moneymaking and sustainable services sector in order to remain competitive in the evolving economic world. The ever-changing demands and preferences of the global consumers have made service industry a necessity as well as an opportunity for different countries in order to develop their economies and position themselves as strong nations in the world. The increasing number and levels of cross-border transactions driven by globalization and liberalization have increased the demand for highly functional and beneficial service industries in different countries. The countries in the Middle East are competing on a global level through effective innovation and impotence given to the services sectors in these countries. The Middle Eastern countries like Qatar and Morocco have identified the importance of developing their service sectors to maintain sustainability in the evolving global world. The North African countries like Lebanon are seeing an increase in the investments and trade practices. The North African countries are developing after the advent of globalization. In this respect, they are focusing on alter the service sectors in the regions. Unlike other economies, Lebanon does not focus on a wide army of service industries. The country thrives mainly on commerce, tourism, and banking industries in the services sector. Morocco and Qatar, on the other hand, have sixfold high performing industries in their services sector. International trade is a major service sector in Lebanon whereas other service industries like Information technology, retail, and utilities have not been established stringy in the country.
Sunday, April 21, 2019
Communicable Disease Medical Definition - subsidization ExampleIt spreads from person to person when a mosquito feeds on human blood (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2012). According to Stanhope and Lancaster, Malaria affects the liver and Erythrocytes, and it is characterized by high fever and other symptoms resembling those of flu. It mostly affects pregnant mothers and children under the age of five (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2012). It is one of the anchor contributors to infant mortality, especially in African countries, where it is responsible for over a million deaths annually. This disease was ahead considered as a tropical disease, but with the advent of global travel, the disease can affect anybody and anyplace as long as they have been to a Malaria prone region (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2012). Malaria infections in the United States put across to those people who have traveled to areas that are prone to the insect carrying the parasite. The governments efforts in hold in malaria includ e medical screening at all points of entry, into the country, to ensure that those who are infected get contiguous preaching regimen to prevent further spread of the infection. It has embarked on public sensitization programs to deal with infestation control and how to identify the first signs of Malaria. The use of mosquito nets, repellents, and protective clothing has in any case been encouraged in a number of counties where there are high mosquito populations like Louisiana and Florida. The challenges that are encountered in the prevention and treatment of Malaria are usually people related. The belief that Malaria is a tropical disease makes people and even more or less doctors misdiagnose the disease as a bad form of flu since most of its symptoms are flu-like. The government is also making efforts to develop a vaccine that can be given to people traveling appear of the country.
Saturday, April 20, 2019
What did i learned from this class - Essay ExampleIt is of import to note that different flock have different forms and styles of attractorship which are based on unique aspects. These help them to address the neighboring(a) or contemporary society and to ensure that the organization they are in is able to achieve its sterilize objectives.Dealing with the junior staff or the employees in an organization is never an easy task if the leader who is bestowed with the responsibility of overlooking their activities is not competent. Many leaders result to intimidation as a musical mode of passing their ideologies to the juniors. On the other hand great leaders engage the people they are administrating and need to learn their characters. Having done that it is increasingly easy to know the best way to approach different situations without create more than anticipation or havoc in the organization. Another thing that many leaders lead in handling is change. When one is transferred to a new environment and give a lead position, it is important to survey the environment and know how they live before imposing new rules that may face much unimportant resistance that could have been avoided in the first place. This work pull up stakes therefore look at the aspects of leadership learnt in this course and how one can develop his leadership skills to become a straightforward leader in the future.In this course I have learnt the following leadership traits that a pricey leader should have. Some leadership are born with some traits while other develop them in the course of their lives. The best thing is to be ready to learn and be corrected whether in advocate or not. A leader should be aware of the environment he is working in. When one assumes the leadership position in a given organization, the first thing is to understand his roles. There his roles to the management and his roles to the employees who will be looking up to him. The responsibility and task of en suring that things run well in the
Friday, April 19, 2019
MacDonaldisaation Thesis (Education paper) analysis of daybook article by Dale (1994) UK EDUCATION SYSTEM KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED - Essay ExampleThe Mac chain of restaurants is celebrated for standardising everything related to the harvestingion or selling of their goods.Dale (1994) also argues how Ritzer has started a crusade against the fast-food giant Mac and how they take a shit ensured the profligacy of the family. He quotes Ritzer in saying that the habitual use of McDonaldized systems is destructive to our physical and physiological well-being as well as to the society as a whole.We have to agree to the accompaniment that we be in a world where brand names become common names. If we were to ask what is common between Zipper, Xerox, Kerosene, and hence the answer is they are all Trade names that has become common names. In the same vein, the processes adopted by McDonaldization have come to stay with us as McDonaldization. In fact, McDonaldization is much older than we thou ght (see McDonaldization 2008). In fact it is much older than the principles adopted by Ray Croc, founder of McDonalds (for to a greater extent information see McDonaldization 2008). If that was the case, then why talk of only McDonaldization It is possible that everybody could afford a Big Mac, but not a track automobileThe logic of operating Mac although looks very simple and organised and certain things have to be borne in mind. First, Mac makes a limited set of dishes that are similar in taste, packaging and quality secondly lot like it and hence its popularity and finally the volume of Mac food eaten by people is a very teentsy compared to their normal food. In this age of globalisation and free trade it is inevitable that all products cannot be overhand and de prevailred specially. Mass production is inevitable also because the consumption, sometimes, far exceeds the production. The only way to ensure that any product lives up to the manufactures reputation is that they ar e trouble free. To make it trouble free, certain manufacturing norms have to be introduced that are uniform and streamlined. The flipside to this argument is that Mac generates trash because of McDonaldization procuring food that has ethical issues. So it is under these parameters we are forced to live and act, whether we like it or not. Ritzer opines that there are four reasons behind McDonaldization namely efficiency, calculability, predictability and control. For details on this recreate refer to McDonaldization, (2008). Here again the flipside of the argument is that we have to take into consideration the following 1) irrationality 2) deskilling and 3) consumer workers (for more information see McDonaldization 2008)Dale, McDonaldization and studyCommoditization of education is the byword in todays academic circles (Dale 1998 Daniel 2002). Dale (1998) argues about McDonaldization of higher education in todays scenario. In todays education system, other than the traditional way of teaching, a lot of institutions are fling franchising options. This is akin to McDonaldization, but in the educational system. Daniel (2002) calls it the commoditization of education. The advantages in this method are large. It brings education to all by implementing a uniform curriculum for everybody and it is gaining popularity in most of the Open Universities of the world and is also gaining acceptance in most of the developing countries. In this
Thursday, April 18, 2019
situation and Politics in Organizational Development - Essay usageThe concepts of power and politics are two areas of organizations that can be very difficult to define and understand. However, in order to be successful in organizational life and development these areas must be explored. In the past Organizational Development has been criticized for non taking these factors (French & Bell, 1999, pg. 282). French & Bell (1999) explain that the understanding of Power and Politics is exempt in very early stages in OD. However with recent research we still continue to derive theories and applications for the OD field. Organization development is act upond by and depends upon politics and power, culture and effective instruction execution of the management team. Organization development is complex process which relies on high moral values that outperform both the organization and the individualistic. The shared values that underlie a high-performing organizations strategy and brin g meaning to the individual employees work are reflected in both the decision-making and the goal-setting processes.Power is the potential to influence behavior, to change the course of events, to strike resistance, and to wee-wee people to do things that they would not otherwise do (Pfeffer, 1994, pg. 30). In short, it is a charge to get things done not the only way, but at least a major way, and one that is a great deal used in organizational life. ... 283). Managers use power to accomplish goals all the clip. The use of power is sometimes called organizational politics as managers use power and influence to produce results. Because of its association with politics, power is many another(prenominal) times looked upon with disdain, as a dirty word. At the same time, we admire managers for what they achieve, and while we may not like it, we acknowledge that the ability to willingly wield power is often a prerequisite to managerial success.Following David McClelland, positive f aced of power is characterized by a socialized lease to initiate influence and lead (French and Bell 1999, pg. 282). Power is used frequently when the necessity to accomplish goals requires us to rely on those on whom we depend. It is especially important when they have a different point of view and cannot otherwise be relied on to do what we want them to do (Pfeffer, 1994, pg. 39). The great the degree of difference in point of view, the greater the resistance and conflict and the more important it is to use power, influence, and organizational politics as a way to get things done. If everyone has the same goal and is in assurement about how to achieve it, there is no need to use power. Studies have shown that the more agreement there was on the goal and the means to attain it, the less(prenominal) political activity occurred (Pfeffer, 1994, pg. 39). There is no need to engage in politics or performance power when there are no differences in perspective or when no conflict exit s. The time and energy can, in these situations, be more productively employed toward goal accomplishment. To the extent that organizations can agree on goals and on the means to attain them, organizational politics can be reduced. In the absence of this
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
Nu alloy as A Genre in Music - Essay ExampleIf addiction is to be specify with respect to music then it is love and passion.Music takes many forms. Each genre is unique. Styles, region and rise make them apart but music brings them together. A very special genre of music that embeds office staff and melody in a magical harmony is gem Music. Rock music has its origin in the late 1940s in the join States (Christe, Ian 2003).Typically, Rock music is accompanied by Guitar, Bass, Drums and often a Keyboard. Vocals forgather a prominent role in this form of music. Much attention goes towards the melody in vocals and the galvanising guitar dominates the foreground. In the beginning Rock music was primarily go throughular in United Kingdom and the United States but by 1960s it started to gain world wide popularity.Chuck berry in 1955 invented Rock and pasture (Christe, Ian 2003). It was after him that the British blues had issue up with increased speed of their rhythm guitars. The ir music had a driving power that no other music on earth had. A few long time later Beatles band was formed. This band went on to achieve world wide success. They were the first proponents to bring guitars on to stage. They turned their music into a mass media attraction. Various forms of leaning music were derived later and each had its aver significance. The evolution of various genres in rock music is mainly associated with time. In 1960s a blend of Rock music with folk and jazz respectively came up and were kn avow as Folk rock and sack out rock. In 1970s a number of subgenres of rock music came up with the influence of soul and self importance. These complicate soft rock, progressive rock, art rock, techno rock, synth rock and lens hood rock. (Christe, Ian 2003)1980s was the golden era in the history of rock music that saw the birth of hard rock, heavy metal and alternate rock. Thanks to bands standardised Metallica ( pound metal), Megadeth (Speed Metal) and exhort Maid en (Hard Rock) that shook the world with almost all of their albums striking gold. They obsessed death, pain, hatred and evils in the inn and that reflected in their lyrics as well. This drew the angry young crowd towards Metal Mania that spread like plague across the world in no time. Rock music established itself as a major business at International level. 1990s saw the time for Grunge style rock, Brit pop and Indie Rock. A new musical genre in the mid 90s that has its origin from Alternate metal, Thrash and Hard rock came up as NU METAL. (Kitts, Jeff and Tolinski, Brad 2002)Apart from these forms many others like punk rock, psychedelic rock, soulful rock Speed Metal, Black Metal, Death Metal, Thrash Metal, Underground, fusion etc have come up with improvements over their ancestral or base forms of Rock music.Each of these forms of Rock music has its own history and origin specifics and bands that are real professionals. Each form has its own pros and difficulty level in composi ng and performing. Each has its own way of drawing crowds towards it. Creativity in each and every picture of the basic attributes associated with Rock music is what differentiates these genres of Rock music. Nu Metal A new GenreA new perception arrived in the minds of the people that style in performance
Managing the difference among individuals is much relevant to todays organisations than ever before - Essay archetypeThis essay analyses the necessity of managing the differences between individuals in the current scenario to meet the targets of the organisation, by aligning individuals to organisation goals and in effect making them work as a team and meeting increasing productivity and susceptibility goals.A growing economy challenges every cardinal with problems of finding and retaining the best in the industry. When the multi faceted team comes together, harmonizing the work place and managing the differences between individuals becomes necessary to attain organisational goals. A motivated and contented individual performs better and contributes towards reaching organisational goals. Today, the customer is prone a lot of priority and the emphasis is on customer service. It order to meet these expectations, dependence on the human workforce has increased tremendously.In the past organisations often had the upper hand. The organisation culture was more conservative and traditional. The hierarchy was adhered to and the lower attrition rates often contributed to a sense of complacency on the part of the management in making efforts to retain the workforce. Todays organisations boast of shorter chains of command. Unnecessary levels of management do been done away with. Organisations in the past operated on the basis of Unity in command principle. It meant that one employee only reported to one supervisor. This was supposed to avoid the potential confusion when an employee gets drawions from more than one source. Today, organisations be using more cross-functional teams, task forces and horizontal structures that cater to customers more than before. Employees often find themselves working for more than one boss.Past organisations had a narrower span of tally meaning lower number of people reporting to one single person. Smaller spans of control requir e more managers and are more costly, opus larger spans are less expensive due to the requirement of a reduced number of managers and overly are more efficient because of the reduced levels in the management. Organisations today opt for a wider span of control as chains of command are shortened and there is more trust in authorization, individual managers are taking on a larger number of subordinates who act with lesser direct supervision. Organisations today move over understood the need to delegate more and empower the employees by giving them equal authority to make relevant decisions when required. Unlike in the past, this saves the managers from micro managing and also back ups the employee feature the responsibility for his own decisions. This has also led to the decentralisation of authority to a certain extent, while centralising the information with the help of the technological advances.Reducing the number of staff by using specialised staff increases the operating e fficiency of the organisations today. Also, in the past subtly manipulating the workforce was slightly easier due to lack of myriad opportunities. Today, employees know they see many options. They have the upper hand. If the company needs them, it has to work hard to keep them. They need to have a unique
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
African Americans health disparities EssayIn 2010, the death target for pitch-darks was higher (25. 0 per 100,000) compared with any other racial ethnicity group (3. 0 dusters). benighteds represented 49% of both deaths with human immunodeficiency virus in 2010. A recent study showed that blacks diagnosed with HIV are less likely than other groups to be linked to care, carry in care, receive antiretroviral treat ment and achieve adequate viral suppression. African American Males African American men accounted for 42% of HIV cases diagnosed among men in 2011. A majority (72%) of African American men with HIV assure the disease by male to male contact while 19% contracted HIV through heterosexual exposure. African American Females Among African American women, high risk heterosexual contact was the most frequently cited mode of transmission, accounting for 89% of cases diagnosed in 2011. More reading ?HIV/AIDS TOPIC place ?HIV/AIDS AND AFRICAN AMERICANS ?HIV/AIDS STATISTI CS AND SURVEILLANCE sexu entirelyy Transmitted Diseases (STD) Gonorrhea In 2010, 69% of all reported cases of gonorrhea occurred among blacks. The invest of gonorrhea among blacks in 2010 was 432. 5 cases per 100,000 population, which was 18. 7 time the rate among whites (23. 1). This disparity has changed little in recent years.This disparity was big for black men (22.2 quantify) than for black women (16. 2 times). Chlamydia In 2010, the overall rate among blacks in the United States was 1,167. 5 cases per 100,000, a 4. 0% increase from the 2009 rate of 1,122. 2 cases per 100,000. The rate of chlamydia among black women was over seven times the rate among white women (1,536. 5 and 205. 1 per 100,000 women, respectively). The chlamydia rate among black men was almost 11 times the rate among white men (761. 8 and 69. 9 cases per 100,000 men, respectively). Syphilis During 20092010, the rate of primary and secondary (PS) syph among blacks decreased 8. 7% (from 18. 4 to 16. 8 cases per 100,000 population).In 2010, 47. 4% of all cases reported to CDC were among blacks and 31. 0% of all cases were among whites. The overall 2010 rate for blacks was eight times the rate for whites, while the 2009 rate was 9. 2 times the rate for whites. In 2010, the rate of PS syphilis among black men was 7. 1 times the rate among white men the rate among black women was 21 times the rate among white women. In 2010, the rate of native syphilis was 33. 1 cases per 100,000 live births among blacks. Race/ethnicity for cases of congenital syphilis is based on the mothers race/ethnicity.This rates was 12. 3 times the rate among whites (2. 7 cases per 100,000.live births). More Information ?STD TOPIC SITE ?STDS AND HEALTH DISPARITIES ?STD SURVEILLANCE REPORT ?STDS IN RACIAL AND ETHNIC MINORITIES Viral Hepatitis Acute Hepatitis A During the then(prenominal) 10 years, there has been little difference between the rates of acute hepatitis A among white non-Hispanics and black non-Hispani cs.The 2011 rates for these groups were 0. 29 and 0. 27 cases per 100,000 population, respectively. Acute Hepatitis B In 2011, the rate of acute hepatitis B was highest for Black non-Hispanics (1. 4 cases per 100,000 population). Acute Hepatitis C During 20022010, the incidence rate of acute hepatitis C remained below 0.5 cases per 100,000. The rate of hepatitis C among Black non-Hispanics increased 27. 3% (to 0. 14 case per 100,000 population in 2011). More Information ?VIRAL HEPATITIS TOPIC SITE ?SURVEILLANCE REPORT FOR VIRAL HEPATITIS Tuberculosis (TB) In 2010, 84% of all reported TB cases occurred in racial and ethnic minorities. Non- Hispanic blacks or African Americans accounted for 24% of TB cases in 2010. African Americans make up approximately 14% of the U. S. population, but accounted for 40% of TB cases in U. S. -born persons. Overall, 11,182 TB cases were reported to CDC from the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2010.
Monday, April 15, 2019
Law and Morality Essay1. Criminal constabulary is non ( yet) for the protection of individuals but also for the protection of decree ? Moderate / Disintegration thesis 1 The state has creator to legislate cleanity in order to protect itself against behaviors that may disintegrate club and its institutions ? Society means a alliance of ideas with extinct shargond ideas on politics, clean-livingistics, and ethics no society bay window exist (Devlin, 10). ? Devlin appealed to the idea of societys virtuous fabric. He argued that the savage constabulary essentialiness respect and reinforce the honorable norms of society in order to keep social order from unravelling. Societys devotion is a crucial, if not the crucial, ele custodyt that holds it together ? Societies disintegrate from within to a greater extent frequently than they are broken up by external pressures. There is chemical decomposition reaction when no common piety is observed and history shows that th e relaxation of moral bonds is often the first stage of disintegration, so that society is justify in taking the homogeneous steps to preserve its moral code as it does to preserve its goernment the suppression of vice is as much the truths business as the suppression of subversive activities. Devlin, The Enforcement of morals 36 (1959) ? extreme/ Conservative Thesis A society is entitled to enforce its morality in order to preserve its distinctive communal values and mood of life HART hart critiques Lord Devlins first argument by challenging his creation of society *He has+ a confused explanation of what a society is (Hart (1962) chapter 82). ? snipe against the Moderate/ Disintegration Thesis ? Hart argues that de vileizing behavior, which has previously been viewed as immoral behavior, is not necessarily a threat to the societys long-term cohesion or existence.? Devlin appears to move from the acceptable proposition that close to shared morality is essential to the exi stence of any society to the unacceptable proposition that a society is identical with its morality as that is at any given moment of its history, so that a variety show in its morality is tantamount to the destruction of a society. (Hart 51-52. Italics in original. ) ? The moderate thesis implies factual claims of the disintegration of society for which Devlin did not tin, and (in Harts view) could not have provided, substantial empirical nourish.DEVLIN ? I do not vagabond that any deviation from a society? s shared morality threatens its existence any to a greater extent than I assert that any subversive activity threatens its existence. I assert that they are both activities which are capable in their nature of threatening the existence of society so that neither smoke be put beyond the rightfulness . I would venture to assert, for example, that you cannot have a game without rules and that if in that respect were no rules there would be no game.If I am asked whether tha t means that the game is identical?with the rules, I would be pull up stakesing for the question to be answered either way in the belief that the answer would lead to nowhere. If I am 1 (Harts term H. L. A. Hart, Social Solidarity and the Enforcement of Morality, The University of Chicago Law Review 35 (1976), pp 1-13. ) asked whether a change in the rules means that nonpareil game has disappeared and another has taken its place, I would reply belike not, but that it would depend on the extent of the change. (Devlin, Morals 37). ? Lord Devlin does not thusly think that this major power should be exercised against every single benign and act of immorality.Society should exercise this power scarce when the moral sensibility of the majority regarding a given immoral activity rises to the level of profound intolerance, indignation, and disgust (Devlin, Morals 17) ? DWORKIN If society should not legislate against all immorality, because not all immoral activities and acts endange r its existence, and so what standards for depict and action go away be used to justify societys veracious to enforce its morality in any given case? The threshold criterion that Lord Devlin offers is public outrage, so it comes out that nothing more than passionate public disapproval is necessary after all?(Taking Rights hard. Cambridge Harvard University Press, 1977, p. 245) ? Attack against the Extreme/ Conservative Thesis Hart rejected the extreme thesis on the ground that it potentially warrant legal enforcement of moral values, regardless of their content, simply because they were wide held. Such restrictions restrict society from evolving naturally in terms of its citizens moral beliefs practices. ? Devlin? s approach of incorporating moral values into the law regardless of content, simply because they were widely held places an unjustified brake on changes in what should be dynamic social mores (Peter Cane 23).DEVLIN 2. The content of moral legislation should be det ermined by what he terms public morality. ? This is not precisely the majority position that could be determined by a public opinion poll. Public morality is the view held by the causal agentable homo /right-minded man ? What is acceptable to the ordinary man, the man in the jury box, who faculty also be called the reasonable man or the right minded man Devlin The Enforcement of Morals 38 (1959) Devlin chose the man in the jury box becausea) The obtaining of fact of a jury (12 men and women) must be unanimous (at the time he was writing) b) The jury will only reach its verdict after the issue has been fully examined and deliberated. c) The jury box is the place where the ordinary persons conception of morality is enforced. ? elsewhere his comments suggest that the content of public morality can be identified by many kind of moral intuition ? It is the power of a common sniff out and not the power of reason that is hindquarters the judgments of societyThere is, for example, a general abhorrence of homosexuality.We should ask ourselves in the first instance whether, expression at it calmly and dispassionately, we regard it as a vice so abominable that its mere figurehead is an offence. If that is the genuine feeling of the society in which we live, I do not see how society can be denied the right to eradicate it (Devlin, Morals 40). ? As DWORKIN phrases the argument In the last analysis the conclusiveness must rest on some article of moral faith, and in a democracy this descriptor of issue must be settled in accordance with democratic principles.(b) It is, after all, the community which acts when the threats and sanctions of the criminal law are brought to bear. The community must take the moral responsibility, and it must therefore act on its own lights that is, on the moral faith of its members (Dworkin, 246-247) HART ? Distinguishes betwixt Positive and slender Morality Critical Morality A report of what is morally true Positive/conventional morality A statement of what more or less wad believe is morally true. ? Hart argued Devlin always slipped into the Positive Morality approach.The problem is that beliefs roughly moral matters change. At any given time in a community, there may be a consensus on some moral questions, while on other questions there will be sharp divisions. Over time, an issue may go from being a matter of consensus to being a matter of contr everyplacesy, and given enough time, an issue which there was a consensus virtuoso way may in the end be a matter of consensus the other way. How can we know that our laws are enforcing societys moral consensus rather than just protecting the last generations prejudices against a consensus forming around another position.(Jurisprudence, possibleness and contextBrian Bix p. 169) ? The Harm Principle Harts2 point of inception was Mills Harm Principle If there are any Critically Moral Rights or Natural Rights there must be a natural right of every person to be equally free. Therefore The only purpose for which power can rightfully be exercised over any member of a civilised community against his will is to pr fifty-fiftyt equipment casualty to others. 3 ? Starting with the liberty-protecting Harm Principle enabled Hart to cast onto Devlin the burden of create on the issue of the affinityship between immorality and social harm.Certainly, Devlin provided no hard evidence to support his assertion that society would be worse off without legal moralism but neither did Hart provide any factual evidence that society would be a better (or, at least, no worse a) place without legal moralism (Peter Cane 31). ? DEVLIN the fact that consent is not a defence for variant harm-based offences showed that the harm principle was not the laws normative foundation. HART distinction needed to be raddled between moralism and paternalism. Paternalism is excuse of interfering with another person against their will, where that person will thence be better off or protected from harm.? DEVLIN the existence of the crime of bigamy also undermined the harm principle. HART distinction needed to be drawn between Harm and Offense. What is disparage with Bigamy is its offensiveness to peoples religious sensibilities. ? DEVLIN We see (moral) wrongfulness taken into account went sentencing, and we do not premise this on harmfulness because otherwise all crimes will be treated alike whether it was done maliciously or otherwise. HART distinction needed to be drawn between principles of Sentencing and criminal liability.The fact that the moral gravity of an offenders extradite- its wrongfulness as opposed to its harmfulness can be taken into account in sentencing tells us nothing or so the relationship between law and morality. Hart offers no reason why this should be so (Peter Cane 32) ? To sum up Harts position Everyone has a priori liberty. Cannot exercise that liberty when it infringes (Harms) anothers liberty. A change in social instituti ons is not the strain of harm from which a society has a right to protect itself. A societys right to act should be restricted to demonstrable and imminent rather than speculated and distant harm.2 3 Hart, Law, autonomy and Morality, p. 14. John Stuart Mill On Liberty ch. 1 ? Problem The law reckons to have little or nothing to do with the immediate consequences of the criminalized conduct. These include the criminalisation of attempts, offences of risk-creation, and the acceptability of strict and negligence-based criminal liability. (Peter Cane 33) ? In order to protect the Harm Principle there are 2 reactions to criminal liability that seem to contradict the requirement of Harm 1. Any law that is not premised on harm is wrong, should be decriminalized 2. flack to rationalize in terms of the harm principle any and every aspect of the criminal law that appears at first sight to be inconsistent with it. This is the strategy adopted by Gardner and Shute in relation to rape, and their approach could be applied more generally to cover risk-creation and attempts, for instance. We might say (as Gardner and Shute say in relation to rape) that a society in which the creation of certain risks was not a crime, or in which attempting and contemplating crimes were not themselves crimes, would be (in some sense) a worse society to live in than one in which they were.A worry about this sort of argument, however, is that it depends on the aggregate effect of many such acts, and does not seem to justify coercion of any individual. ? Classifying such diffuse effects as harm seems to minify the significance of Mills principle to vanishing point. 4 Reinterpreting the harm principle to encompass such non-individualized harm =(what Hart called) the moderate thesis in different garb PETER CANE Taking Law Seriously Starting Points of the Hart/Devlin Debate(2006) 10 (1/2) The Journal of Ethics, Vol.10, No. 1/2 (Jan. , 2006) ? The debate about the limits of the criminal law has become a debate about the meaning of the harm principle and the definition of harm. Devlins approach was better. He asked a nonleading question what factors ought to be taken into account in deciding whether conduct ought to be criminalised? Harm (however defined) is one such factor. But should it be given lexical priority over other pertinent factors? ? It is easy enough to accept Harts idea that freedom is a basic sympathetic beingse value.Human beings are individuals, and being able to express that individuality in ones choices and actions is an essential component of human well-being. Alongside the individuality of human beings, however, their other well-nigh noticeable characteristic is sociability. It is not just that most people choose to live in (larger or smaller) communities or that most people belong to various overlapping and interacting groups. plenty are also heavily reliant on those communities and groups, and on their relationships with other human beings.If individual freedom is a precondition of human flourishing so, too, is membership of communities and groups, and a rich mesh of social interactions. ? The law has many social benefits We must view the law positively as a set of social resources rather than negatively as a ascendance on individual freedom. ? This misconception arises from an unproblematic picture of criminal penalties that fails to recognize their variety and the varying degrees to which they invade individual autonomy, and impose harsh manipulation on and blottize the offender.This is, no doubt, partly the result of Harts argument that rules and principles of sentencing are irrelevant to questions about the limits of the criminal law. This is in moderate Some conduct should not be criminalised at all, no matter what the penalty. But in relation to some conduct, the answer to the question of 4 N. E. Simmonds, Law and Morality, in E. Craig (ed. ), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (London Routledge, 2004), retr ieved 19 May 2004 from http/ www. rep. routledge. com. whether it should be criminalised will depend on whether a suitable penalty is available.Penalties relate to stigma, and stigma relates to informing a societies interactions. ? The conception of the criminal law and of law in general that underpins the Hart-Devlin debate is what we might call a conception of law as coercion. According to this understanding of law, its prime significance and perish is to secure compliance with its norms by threats of coercion and imposition of punishments and other sanctions. Laws coerciveness is seen as the characteristic most relevant to determining its proper limits. This is a deficient understanding of law and its social functions.For the typical, law-abiding citizen the significance of law resides not in its coerciveness but in its normativity. Such a person obeys the law not in order to avoid its coercive sanctions but because they consider obedience to be the preferable or correct course of action. A legal system could not operate effectively if this were not so. In this light, we must question whether a theory of the limits of law based on the assumption that law is seen by those to whom it is turn to as an invasion of their autonomy is likely to be sound.Why should we determine the limits of law by deferred payment to the perspective of the minority of people who obey it only because of its coercive capacity, rather than the perspective of those who view law as a legitimate source of standards of behaviour? If law were viewed from this latter perspective, the idea that it might fittingly prescribe standards of behaviour that express shared social values and aspirations would seem much less objectionable. DWORKINDistinguishes between Goal-Based scheme and Rights-Based Strategy Goal-Based Strategy Even if the behavior is bad for the community as a whole, just considered in itself, the consequences of trying to censor or otherwise suppress it would be, in the lo ng run, even worse. Rights-Based Strategy Even if the behaviour makes the community worse off, even in the very long run, it is nevertheless wrong to censor or restrict it because this violates the individual moral or governmental rights of citizens who resent the censorship.Favouring the Rights-Based Strategy (p. 194) People have the right not to suffer disadvantage in the distribution of social goods and opportunities, including disadvantage in the liberties permitted to them by the criminal law, just on the ground that their officials or fellow-citizens think that their opinions about the right way for them to lead their own lives are ignoble or wrong. I shall call this the right to moral independence, excuse of the Right to Moral IndependenceRights are individuals trumps5 over a background justification for political decisions that states a goal for the community as a whole. If someone has a right to moral independence, this means that it is for some reason wrong for official s to act in violation of that right, even if they (correctly) believe that the community as a whole would be better off if they did. To some extent, the argument in favour of a particular right must depend on which general background justification for political decisions the right in question proposes to trump.5 Dworking, Taking Rights Seriously Dworkin assumes that the background justification with which we are concerned is some form of utilitarianism, which takes, as the goal of politics, the fulfilment of as many of peoples goals for their own lives as possible. This is the most prevalent background in Western Democracies. Suppose we accept then that, at least in general, a political decision is justified if it promises to make citizens happier or to fulfil more of their drutherss, on average, than any other decision could.Suppose we assume that the decision to prohibit pornography altogether does, in fact, decorous that test, because the desires and preferences of publishers and consumers are outweighed by the desires and preferences of the majority, including their preferences about how others should lead their lives. How could any contrary decision, permitting even the private use of pornography, then be justified? A proper understanding of the underlying justification for utilitarianism will itself justify the Right. Utilitarianism owes whatsoever appeal it has to what we might call its egalitarian nature.Utilitarianism claims that people are treated as equals when the preferences of each, weighted only for intensity, are balanced in the akin scales, with no distinctions for persons or merit. Even if the majoritys preference (i. e. that which will make the majority happier) is to disadvantage or to advantage a minority, this is inconsistent with the very marrow squash of utilitarianism , so even if it does result in fulfilment of as many of peoples goals for their own lives as possible, utilitarianism cannot allow in that without undermining the philosophy that bore utilitarianism itself. Dworkins argument, therefore, comes to thisIf utilitarianism is to figure as part of an attractive working political theory, then it must be qualified so as to restrict the preferences that undermine egalitarianism. One very applicatory way to achieve this restriction is provided by the idea of rights as trumps over unrestricted utilitarianism. The right of moral independence can be defended in a parallel way. Neutral utilitarianism rejects the idea that some ambitions that people might have for their own lives should have less command over social resources and opportunities than others, except as this is the consequence of weighing all preferences on an equal basis in the same scales.It rejects the argument, for example, that some peoples conception of what sexual experience should be like are inherently degrading or unwholesome. But then it cannot (for the reasons just canvassed) count the moral preferences of those who do hold such op inions in the calculation whether individuals who form some sexual minority, including homosexuals and pornographers, should be prohibited from the sexual experiences they want to have.The right of moral independence is part of the same collection of rights as the right of political independence, and it is to be justified as a trump over an unrestricted utilitarian defence of prohibitory laws against pornography. Limitations on the Right (p. 195) Suppose it is discovered that the private inlet of pornography does in fact significantly increase the danger of crimes of violence, either generally or specifically crimes of sexual violence. Or suppose that private consumption has some special and deleterious effect on the general economy, by causing great absenteeism from work.Then government would have, in these facts, a justification for the restraint and perhaps even for the prohibition of pornography that does not include the offending hypothesis either directly, by the assumption t hat the hypothesis is true, or indirectly, in the proposition that many people think it true. Can we find a plausible justification for restricting the display of pornography that does not violate the right of moral independence? We can, obviously, construct a certain argument in that direction, as follows.Many people do not like to encounter genital displays on the way to the grocer. This taste is not, nor does it necessarily reflect, any perverse view of the character of those who do not mind such encounters. Another may argue, for example, that his own make merry in other peoples bodies is lessened or made less sharp and special if nakedness becomes either too familiar to him or less peculiar to those occasions in which it provides him special pleasure, which may be in museums or his own bedroom or both.Or that sex will come to be different and less valuable for him if he is too often or too forcefully reminded that it has different, more commercial or more sadistic, meaning fo r others. Or that his goal that his children develop certain similar tastes and opinions will be thwarted by the display or advertising that he opposes. None of these different opinions and complaints must be the product of some conviction that those with other opinions and tastes are people of bad character.The Williams Report If one accepted, as a basis for coercing one persons actions, the fact that others would be upset even by the theory of his performing those actions, one would be denying any substantive individual liberty at all. 5 5 Report, p. 100. Laws against public sex would generally be thought to be consistent with the harm condition, in the sense that if members of the public are upset, distressed, disgusted, outraged or put out by witnessing some class of acts, then that constitutes a respect in which the public performance of those acts harms their interests and gives them a reason to object .The offensiveness of publically displayed pornography seems to us to be in line with traditionally accepted rules protecting the interest in public decency. Restrictions on the open sale of these publications, and analogous arrangements for films, thus seem to us to be justified . If one goes all the way down this line, however, one arrives at the situation in which people objected to even knowing that pornography was being read in private and if one accepted as a basis for coercing one persons actions, the fact that others would be upset even by the thought of his performing these actions, one would be denying any substantive liberty at all.
Sunday, April 14, 2019
Health and Social C argon EssayOur social movement was a do drugss compress our main aim was to inform mickle on drugs and what effects it nooky have and to not stereotype drug users as they can be anyone. M2- Positive influences I felt up our group were real well prepared as we had a nigh(a) use of resources. This included plenty of leaflets to give bulge start on drugs to inform people on the effectiveness on drugs. We also had a laptop with the bawl out to blunt game on it avail satis incidentory for people to play, and other drugs game activities that were available for people to exhaust interpreter in. We also gave out straitsnaires and cakes which rewarded those for taking part.We also had plenty of space to set up the send back and all(a)(a) the activities. This was great as not having enough space would have meant not being able to set up all the activities we made. We also, had plenty of time as we had a good time time slot of 2 hours between 11 1 to im plement the campaign. This gave much time for us to hand out questionnaires and inform and teach much people on the effects of drugs. We all took part as in the campaign as we were guided in the stereotyping activity where we all attached signs to us asking do you think I take drugs? where we asked people with regarding what we looked to like to whether we took drugs or not.Read more Identify ship canal of working that can help improve partnership workingessayThis involved us fecundation up in particular clothes which seemed to be rattling effective rather than showing pictures of people. I intend we also taught lots to people as many a(prenominal) people were shocked at the reading gave to them especially astir(predicate) the legal highs activity. Negative influences I felt we didnt all equally participate in preparation as the questionnaire and research I made were not used and a various questionnaire was made.This in effect made it seem as if my contribution was not ne cessary. I also, felt that I didnt take part in setting up the campaign as the show tasks went to other group members. However, the campaign involved marking up as characters and I believe that we all did a good job of dressing up except certain members of the group didnt dress up as they should of as originally, we had the plan of psyche dressing up in a turn to show that your appearance doesnt affect whether taking drugs or not.This was grievous as not that were we raising awareness we were teaching about tereotypes. Also, the people that came to the campaign didnt engage in all activities as we hoped as there was so many to take part in and so much(prenominal) teaching to give out. Also, our tar piss audience were teenagers as there was evidence most drug users were approximately this age However, mostly adults came. I felt we had a limited audience and not as many people as we thought came to the campaign and a lot of the people had learning disabilities in which we w erent prepared for and didnt cater for.M3 Ethical issues One of the main ethical issues in our campaign was confidentiality.Confidentiality is important as during the campaign somebody may come forwards and confide in you about drugs or there drug intake and it is important that confidentiality is not breached and that persons name is not discussed and their secretiveness is kept. As we gave out questionnaires, they were kept anonymous so therefore, all information received from the campaign can be kept confidential as one of the questions was Do you know anyone that takes drugs which although this was a closed question it was quite personal and anyone answering might of felt uncomfortable if the questionnaire was to ask your name.This then links to risk-free guarding. During the campaign no one came forward with any information that could of leash them to be unsafe However, it was important that information we gave out was correct and that we werent giving false information whi ch could lead someone to risk of exposure when taking drugs. This I felt we did successfully as all research given out was from drug websites such as Talk to Frank. Also, other ethical issues include choice and own beliefs. I believe that when giving out information we didnt preach any of our own beliefs to anyone. It was completely factual.As this could of lead someone to life uncomfortable as everybody has the right to choose whether they take drugs or not and if it is important that when teaching that you are not preaching your beliefs about people taking drugs as this could lead to offend someone who is taking them. Finally, it is important to not ask any inappropriate questions as this could lead to someone feeling uncomfortable. All personal questions that needed to be asked during our campaign were on an anonymous questionnaire which didnt involve any questioning from anybody from our group.Therefore, making people feel comfortable in answering. Other questions asked by us were do you think I look like the type of person that takes drugs? as we were dressed up as characters. However, this question was asked after we explained that we were dressed up as characters as part of the campaign so people felt comfortable in answering without offending. Also, the question would you like a cake? for those who didnt want to take part in any of the activities. D2 During our campaign we gave out questionnaires after people took part in the activities.However, single 32 people answered the questionnaire. According to the questionnaire 22 people out of 32 knew someone who takes drugs that left only ten people who didnt know anyone who took drugs. According to the Shropshire star 16 topical anaesthetic Shrewsbury men had a powerful and overbearing influence on others in the drugs chain and was said to be taking ? 15,000 a month from the trade. Phoenix Car centre was aware of the extent of drugs operation and compete significant part in getting drugs to the st reet of Shrewsbury under orders from other people.Some of these men are parents to teenagers in Shrewsbury and therefore, it is possible that some of the people that filled out the questionnaire knew these men. http//www. shropshirestar. com/news/2013/03/03/how-police-smashed-shropshire-drugs-cartel/ Also, 28 out of 32 people were made more aware of the effects of drugs after the campaign whereas only 4 people didnt. This could of meant that they already knew about the effects drugs had on someone or they didnt feel out campaign gave much information on the effects drugs have one someone. However, more than three quarters did develop out more about the effects of drugs which is positive.This could suggest that existing campaigns arent using the correct technique as we did to inform people on the effects of drugs. Talk to Frank is a website that only offers online information and a call centre in which people are able to access to talk about drugs. However, although our campaign us ed most of the Talk to Frank information we implemented it in a different way which was more effective to informing people on the effects of drugs. Since 2011 the Talk to Frank website has had a 6% increase in feedback Therefore, It could suggest that people are using the website a lot more than previously.This could be why some people didnt learn anymore about the effects of drugs and as our campaign was implemented directly through explaining we were able to teach more people about the effects. http//www. clear-uk. org/talk-to-frank-is-back/ 29 out of 32 people found out more information about drugs after the campaign was implemented. This meant that only 3 people didnt learn anything from the campaign. This could have meant that they already knew or that our campaign wasnt very informative. However 29 people did find it informative, which is more than 3 quarters of the people that were involved.Therefore, I feel as though our campaign did inform people well. Also, when questioned how useful the campaign was statistics show that 19 people thought our campaign was really good 11 people thought it was good and only 2 people thought it was average. And nobody felt our campaign was poor or really poor. Therefore, more than half thought out campaign was really good and useful and the rest thought it was good or average. This is positive results. Overall, our campaign results are very positive. This means that our campaign was very beneficial.I feel that our campaign went really well due to the positive feedback that we got of the audience. This is proved with results from our questionnaire which we gave to the audience to get their personal opinions on how well our campaign was to them. When giving out the questionnaire I felt we were present and observant when the questionnaire was filled out. Therefore, I feel that the results we got back from the questionnaire may be slightly warped due to people not absentminded to be judged or questioned about their answer s if they were negative as although it was anonymous it was very overt.Other campaigns use the questionnaire online and get feedback from the public, such as the Talk to Frank website and if I were to do the campaign again I would drop by the wayside people to step aside to fill in their questionnaire and ask them to put it into a box I feel this covert way of gathering information is much better as it gives the public seclusion which makes them able to write down their real thoughts and opinions about the campaign and not put answers to be polite. However, I felt our campaign nformation was as good as Talk to Frank as we had the talk to Frank games available and we were able to use a good range of information from the Talk to Frank website to puzzle out awareness about the effects of drugs. http//www. talktofrank. com/? gclid=CLf-1dOy6bcCFQ3KtAod_Q4AnA A National campaign launched by the Australian government in 2011-2012 also used public speaking and posters to communicate to the public about the awareness of drugs and it was also very effective for them.They also collected results from their campaign on how it affected certain people and how it has made a difference for these certain people, how theyve become more aware of drugs and the dangers, how they now feel about drugs and if they would ever blast to take drugs. Which is slightly different from our campaign questionnaire but it is still the same method of gathering information and still very similar to the way in which we implemented our campaign. http//www. drugs. health. gov. au/internet/drugs/publishing. sf/content/campaign4 This proved very good in some aspects as there has been an increase in showing that drugs are harmful and helping people avoid using drugs which is very similar to our campaign in the fact it is bringing awareness by showing that drugs are bad and harmful by looking and there effects. Also, other statistics show that more adults are talking more to their children about sub stances after the campaign which again is bringing awareness and also promote two way communications.
Saturday, April 13, 2019
Fossils in Kenya attemptKenya lies in a strategic place in Africa. Its capital city is Nairobi with a online total population of 39. 11 one thousand million it has an argona of 224,960 square miles. Two main discoveries in Kenya bring make a great contribution to the phylogenesis tree.These discoveries were made in the year 2000 by an connection of international scientists, most of who were from France in collaboration with scientists associated with the field of study Museums of Kenya (NMK), working under an umbrella project cognise as the Koobi Fora Research Project go through by Louse Leakey who was at the cadence of the discoveries affiliated to the National Museums of Kenya and their findings were published in the science journal Nature. These studies preceded the earlier controversial findings by Kenyan researcher Richard Leakey on the exact age hominids shew on Koobi Fora Area that lies east of Lake Turkana.The first pattern to be entrap was unearthed from the grounds of Kapsomon in Tugen hills that are gear up in the Kenyan district of Baringo in October 25, 2000. The main move of the man that were excavated included jaws that contained teeth, upper and lower teeth that were also isolated from each other, and both the develop and finger bones. Initial studies on the finger bones seemed to lead to the call forthion that the hominid discovered were trees climbers speckle similar studies on the leg bones established them to be two legged creatures that walked on the ground. correspondent sign studies on teeth showed that the canines were shorter than the apes however they were longer if compared to the current human canine. This probably indicated that they lived on tearing fruits particularly hard-skinned fruits. The leg bones on initial observation seemed to have chewed probably by a large carnivore that used to feed on the individuals who existed then. The researchers thought the carnivore might have been a cat for the sincere reasoning that the cat feeds on its catch while on a tree and its during this attend that the remains fell on the water below.Their research findings were published in 9th august 2007. The studies were done on samples that were found in Turkana which is in the Northern dry Kenya. Scientists who were studying the evolution history in Kenya account on their findings disputing on early findings that valet habilis and Homo erectus evolved one after the other being in a straight line to Homo sapiens. In stead their analysis based on two specimens, one being a Homo habilis dated 1. 44 million old age, this being the youngest species ever found by scientists who were studying the evolution of human, and a mankind erectus dated 1.55 million years ago, lived simultaneously alongside each other for an estimated period of five hundred thousand years. This disqualifies the thought that Homo habilis evolved from firm erectus consequently rearranging the initial straight line to Homo sapien s. This indicated that there was an overlap surrounded by the Homo habilis and Homo erectus ages and further, it indicated that the fact they the two species managed to live concurrently on the like lake basin then it is right to suggest that they probably had antithetical ecological niches as a result avoiding direct competition that would have conduct to elimination of one of the species.Stringer Chris one of the scientists involved in the study, who was then studying at the Natural story Museum in London in the field of human origins suggest the possible life styles. In his entrance the larger and more mobile erectus was possibly a more active hunter while the little active and smaller Homo habilis was a scavenger. This study took several years to prepare the specimen so as to be exactly sure of the identification of the specimen. It took around seven years for the group of scientists lead by Leakey to analyze and announce the results.This interpreted to the expectation t hat almost two to three million years ago both Homo habilis and Homo erectus must have originated from a common stem. This common ancestor is thought to have lived the age dating almost two to three million years ago, a time that there is no much fossil information. This breakthrough further indicates that the early general sagacity that man evolved from a more ape standardized being to a more human like being is still poorly researched. However, the discovery does not contrast much from the early thought that mankind habilis is the direct ancestor of Homo sapiens.The Homo erectus fossil discovered at Lake Turkana, dated 1. 55 million years ago, was a surprise discovery, according to Dr. Spoor a professor of professor at the University College London have-to doe with with evolutionary anatomy the skull had a striking feature as compared to early discoveries it was the smallest. This small size was comparatively close in size to Homo habilis than the previously discovered Homo erectus species. This new finding made scientists to consider re-examining early skulls they had already collected from various parts and dozes of partial fossils which together totaled to xxx in number.However, its neck, jaw and teeth and the cranium with a distinctive feature had the feature of speechs that indicated it was a Homo erectus. In addition, the skull of the individual that was found in Kenya was probably an adult in its young ages or a sub-adult in its late ages the scientists estimated the age to be between 18 and 19. The early discoveries had indicated that the large skull of the Homo erectus was a evanesce indication that home erectus was the most recent in the ancestry of the human being the only end being that human beings had a larger brain that the former ancestor Homo erectus.However, the small skull changed this view suggesting that Homo erectus was less human like than earlier assumed. However, different reporters on the Lake Turkana tend to give differen t opinions on the small size of the skull of Homo habilis that was found. One such reporter is Susan Anton an anthropologist at the University of New York. In her report she postulates that the small skull is an indication of the varying in skull sizes of erectus specimen with more emphasis on the differences between the male and the female of the erectus species.This difference in the two is what she called sexual dimorphism. She further writes to illustrate that on comely the human males are in general almost 15% larger than their female counterparts. This same characteristic applies to chimpanzees and gorillas as well. The theory of sexual dimorphism, lead to other anthropologists to come up with other views for example Dr. Lieberman of the Harvard university suggested that the initial discoveries of homo erectus must have been male since they were large in size while the specimen that were found at Lake Turkana are likely to be females due to small size.Susan Anton attributes s exual dimorphism to either reproductive outline or sexual selection. In an example in support of this view she documents that in the silverback the male are far much large than females and one male usually has several females. In contrast in male gibbons are almost similar in size to their female counterparts consequently they mate in pairs. In other words in the a primate family where the male and the female have the same size skull the male tends to be monogamous whereas a family that has different sizes the male tends to be polygamous.Conclusion The discovery of fossils in Kenya and the rest of Africa especially Ethiopia and the subsequent dating procedures have provided a wide array of time frame work which has given a new dimension in answering questions of the origin and evolution of hominids. With service in dating techniques it is now easier to estimate, without a lot of doubts, the ages of a given carbon containing specimen as compared to earlier estimates that were in mo st cases were debated hotly before a consensus would be agreed upon.The improvement in dating techniques can be attributed to the incorporation of 40Ar-39Ar dating technique. With the new discoveries the evolutionary tree seems to scientists to be chaotic rather than being heroic. This is because the old evolution theory where it was thought that origin of man started from homo habilis to home erectus and finally to modern man or homo sapiens seems to be proven amiss(p) and in a more simple manner. The new discoveries have further brushed off the mind that human beings evolved from Neanderthals.It is important to note that as new discoveries are made the evolutionary tree allow for keep on changing. However, according to Kimbel this should be considered as a basis for getting more convert evidence, getting questions answered more clearly and formulating more clearer theories.References Asfaw B. , Hart W. K. ,Beyene Y. , Renne P. , Gilbert W. H. , WoldeGabriel G. et al. (2002) Rem ains of Homo erectus from Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature, 416317-20. Balter M. and Gibbons A. (2002) Were weensy People the first to venture out of Africa? Science, 29720-8.Clark J. D. , WoldeGabriel G. , Renne P. , Beyene Y. , Hart W. , Gilbert H. et al. (2003) Stratigraphic and chronological contexts of Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature, 413767-82. George M. , Wilson G. , Noble S. , (2004) Fossils Link Pre-human in the West Europe to Earlier Date. London Academic push New York University (August 13, 2007,). New Kenyan Fossils Challenge Established Views On Early Evolution Of Our Genus Homo. New York Richard Leakey (2002) the origins of human kind a search of what makes us human. London. Harper-Collins Publishers.
Thursday, April 11, 2019
see of sparkling water Art Es swanThe Influence of Pop Art Illustration Essay To be someone who goes against the crowd, you must have a lot of courage. Well, back in the late 1950s, pop prowessists such as Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein and many separates did exactly that. During this clock time period, pop fine subterfugeificeistic creation was a challenge to the traditions of fine contrivance by using images of pop culture. You whitethorn be asking yourself, what is pop cheat? Pop art consists of objects that are removed from their original mise en scene and combined with unrelated material. In her article from Design Magazine, Adriana Marinica has a great explanation of how pop art appeals to us Americans and how pop art has its own style, This art derives its style from the visual activities and pleasures of people television, magazines and comics. (Marinica) Pop art enchantd American culture greatly darn influencing the art culture as tumesce. It created a ass orted perspective for art, rather than fine art. Most people have seen Andy Warhols work, the roughly famous universe the campbells soup cans, he is the most known pop artist.not tranquillize did pop art influence American culture but it also influenced British culture, but in a various way. In 1952 was the beginning of the pop art movement known as The Independent Group who represented two-year-old artists of that time. Even straight off, pop art is silence seen around the media and dismantle street art. Back in its time, pop art was much different than anything anyone has seen. It has been the most general art movements of the modern era. This movement was so-called to be a rebellion towards the Abstraction Expressionists, or artists who were perceived to be pretentious and over-intense.Fine art was popular from the 17th century on, it had much detail and foc utilize on being realistic including paintings and drawings, patch compared to pop art which has bright colors and it is more cartoony and not precise realistic. Pop artists took images from popular media which do it easy to relate to the works. With the images from popular media, they would combined it with a background or other objects that had nothing to do with the media images. On the other end of the spectrum, most fine artists used a contemporary style while pop artists were more focused on theattitudes rather than the art itself, such as irony and jeering styles.Most pop artists prefer to use colors such as red, yellow, and blue since they are so vivid and are sure to grab your attention. Marilyn Diptych (1962). Campbells Soup (1968). Just a few of Andy Warhols most known pieces of pop art. Youve seen the multi-colored soup can picture in your high school art class, and maybe youve seen the oddly colored portrait of Marilyn Monroe. Warhol had many other different styles and pieces, but he was very popular with his pop art works.Warhol seemed to have a great interest in creating i mages of well known actors and actresses. Not only is the iconic Andy Warhol famous for his pop art, we need to recognize that there are many other artists who have adopted the pop art culture. Some of those artists include Crash, Jim Dine, Keith Haring, Roy Lichtenstein, and Tom Wesselmann. Pop art became very popular in the late 1950s in North American culture. The term pop art was officially introduced in December of 1962.Origins of pop art in North America emerged as a way of expression for artists at a time where the world was lacking any interest or excitement. This movement was to emphasise that pop art could take images from big money-media from popular culture and can still be considered fine art. At this time advertising had used many elements of modern art, which had artists searching for more adroit ways to advertise to keep up with the changing world. American artists found their inspirations by living at bottom our culture.In the United States, pop art was made as a representational art as an ironic response by artists to subdue the personal symbolism. Mass produced imagery was very popular in America, these works of art had more bold and aggressive overtones. Back in the 1950s and 60s pop art was associated with pop music which includes swinging and covers of the Beatles and Elvis Presleys cover albums designed by the pop artist Peter Blake. In contrast, Great Britain viewed American pop art from a different perspective. Great Britain adopted romantic, sentimental, and even humorous overtones.Early pop art in Britain was inspired by American pop culture, but they did not experience this culture as Americans had. During the time of post-war, pop art culture improved the prosperity of their society. English pop was considered to be more of a metaphor or to have a theme. Introduced in the United Kingdom, the Independent Group was formed in London, 1952. This was a assort of young painters, sculptors, architects, writers, and critics who were ch allenging modernist approaches to the culture and traditions of the fine arts.The group was mainly about popular culture implications from mass advertising, movies, product design, comic strips, science fiction, and technologies. Even with origins early as the 1950s, pop art culture is still very alive to this day. Pop art has a very strong influence on todays top fashion designers. As Marylou Luther of the Cleveland, Northeast Ohio News states, To me, the most important art trace that has popped back into fashion and the one most likely to have a trickle-down effect to the streets is Pop art.The art movement has been so iconic and profound that it is still featured, studied, and produced to this day. Some inspirations are helpful towards interior architecture, fashion, fabric, and something even as simple as packaging. A popular way pop art is used is the well known comic style that is based on American animations. While searching for how pop art is used today, I found a quote on a website that I felt should be included in this essay, This type of fine art is so popular nowadays that we recognize its potency to continue growing and attracting more followers all around the world.As you can see, pop art has had a very big impact on our culture that we still see to this day. Not only has it inspired our culture and our artists, but even other countries culture and artists as well. I can say that Ive been inspired by pop artist Andy Warhol with his amazing works of art. As we see effortless Hollywood, magazines, television, and newspapers are all producing different images which is enlarging popular culture majorly. Without the pop art movement, our culture would not be the same.Marinicas point of view may better help how pop art has influenced our culture and how it is still very much alive today she states, Pop Art continues to be hailed as a triumph to this day, whether were talking about original pieces selling for big money, or prints selling in ample n umbers. It became clear that pop art was much more than just a statement and its breathed to ignore it. You can see it wherever you go. Its in public places and even advertising, as it was used initially in the 1950s.
Wednesday, April 10, 2019
Indoor Plumbing and Public Sanitation in evolution Countries EssayThe porcelain throne, the pot, the pooper, the potty, the latrine, the toilet. That is something we befoolt bring in much thought to, unless something is wrong with it. What about the shower bath or the sink? How often to do you go to your sink to get a glass of peeing system and wonder Am I imbibition someones poo? Will it be clean right away or will I get sick? I k right off for myself, I r bely give this any thought at all and I can honestly say that I view never worried that my drinking weewee would be contaminated by feces. However, for many around the world, this is a constant concern.many immediately either dont construct access to clean water or dont have access to very much water at all. They openly reach, as substantially as drink, cook, and bathe in contaminated water. This causes several life threatening diseases and illnesses. I will discuss the water and sanitisation issues in under de veloped countries, as well as what is being make to improve these situations. Early one December morning in Boise Idaho, I woke up to an especially cold day. I tiredly scuffled myself to my bathroom, went pee and when I went to flush my toilet, nothing happened. cool off slightly asleep and conf apply, I tried a couple more times to get it to flush. silent nothing happened. Frustrated, I opened my tank and found that thither was no water in it at all. I thought that that was strange, so I checked my faucet. I turned the handle and no water came out, I quickly checked my shower and kitchen sink next. I had no water at all. Realizing that I had to work in a few hours and I had no way to shower, brush my teeth or clean up in any way, I became quite irate. I called my management company and on the face of it pipes had frozen in most of their properties.After this experience I started phoneing about my reaction and how on that point are countries that dont have access to clean wate r ever. Though I think that the reaction that I had would have been the same for any person living in the U. S. , I dont know if it was as big of a deal as it felt wish well in the moment. I didnt die from not having water for one day, I wasnt forced to defecate in my front lawn or drink from a sewer. I didnt get sick and I didnt even have to go the entire day without a shower. In fact, I didnt have to go even a couple of hours without access to water.We, in America, are so used to having constant access to clean water and indoor plumbing that if we have to go an hour without it, its as though our entire world is crashing down. We rarely give thought to those in underdeveloped countries that lack access to clean water at all. There are approximately 7 billion citizenry living on earth today. There are about 2. 6 billion flock today that dont have a toilet or access to one (Yamaguchi). That is about 40% of the worlds population That is a huge number of people without toilets. Her e in America, there is not a single home that does not have a toilet.Even the dispossessed have constant access to restroom facilities and clean water. I had a conversation with a friend of tap that works with the homeless on a daily basis to see what the situation was like for the homeless in America in regards to restroom access and sanitation. I asked him if any of the homeless people that he worked with were ever forced to openly defecate or go without a shower. He informed that the only when ones that did that were never forced to, but they did it by choice. He also told me that many that are homeless are on Medicaid, so if they get sick they can righteous go to the doctor.This is quite different from exploitation countries, where people die all the time from not being able to afford medical care. Developing countries not only lack affordable medical care but they have very control ability to prevent the spread of illness, such as those caused by exposure to fecal matter (Yamaguchi). However, in America we have sewage systems and workss that filter and treat our sewer water. In Los Angeles there is the Hyperion sewage plant that processes enough fecal matter to fill three Rose Bowl Stadiums every day (Yamaguchi).That is bonnie in Los Angeles, what about the rest of the U.S.? It is mind boggling to think about how much is processed. Now lets look at India, a country that has significantly grown economically, however is still severely deficient proper sanitation systems. According to UNICEF, about 600 million people in India are without access to a toilet (World Toilet Day 2012). That is more than half the population of India. Instead of utilize a toilet, they openly defecate wherever they can. Many use the Yamuna River (Yamaguchi), the largest river in the Ganges of Northern India. The result has been a severely contaminated water source.The river has literally turned black and bubbles from the methane gases. The shores are not only bemire with fecal matter but trash as well and yet still the people are using the water from the river (Yamaguchi). I think many Americans reaction to this would be sodding(a) or we might generalize and think that Indians are just unsanitary people. Is that really the case, though? The people living in underdeveloped countries are rarely living in unsanitary conditions by choice. Many are ignorant to proper sanitation practices and/or are living in conditions where they have no access to clean water.In the urban slums of New Delhi, people are defecating anywhere they can in the middle of the streets, next to rail road tracks, or just feet from where they eat, drink and sleep. The water they are using to cook, drink, and bathe with is water from a sewer (Yamaguchi). About 1000 children die every day from play (Bajait, Thawani). This lack of proper sanitation systems is exposing these children and adults to fecal matter on a daily basis, which is causing diseases like Typhoid, Cholera and othe r severe illnesses linked with diarrhea. Is this the fault of the individual or the fault of their governments?In my opinion, twain are at fault. Though developing countries have very little access to informational services, I do believe that it falls in the hands of the individual to get informed and I believe that it is the certificate of indebtedness of the government to provide the services required to inform its people on proper sanitation, as well as provide a clean environment to live in via sanitation systems. This lack of toilets, which results in a lack of clean water, is obviously a very big problem. So what is being done about it? In 2001 Jack Sim founded the World Toilet Organization.This organization is dedicated to improving the worlds toilet and sanitation situation. They make toilets that are affordable for those living in impoverished conditions. Jack Sim also works with governments of developing countries and small organizations to help provide toilets to those in need. One of those small organizations is run by Bapak Sumadi in Indonesia. Sumadi is a major leader in Indonesia in providing the earthly concern with toilets and teaching the importance of public sanitation. Together their goal is to end open defecation (Yamaguchi). Though the changes and effects are small, they are not insignificant.The conditions that these people are forced to live in, is truly a crisis. Thousands die every day from not having proper sanitation systems. The invention of the toilet and sewage systems has not only given us a way to get rid of our feces, but it has provided us with sanitary conditions which keeps our water clean and reduces the chances of contracting diseases. No matter who you are or where you live, everyone deserves to have access to a toilet and clean water. The question now is what more can be done? Should the government help provide better access to toilets and sanitation systems? What about other countries?Do we hold any responsibility i n helping these developing countries? In my opinion, yes we do. One scholarly journal, in reference to David Hemson, stated regular water supply to the rural worthless is both a constitutional requirement and a social necessity (Phaswana-Mafuya 298). I think it is authoritative that we learn to help one another, so that we can grow together rather than grow apart. I know the next time that I use the restroom, take a bath, or even just get a glass of water I will be grateful for all that I have and that I dont have to worry about what I am drinking or bathing in. What about you?