Monday, September 30, 2019

Italy and Japan Essay

World War II caused greater destruction than any other war in history. The war took the lives of about 17 million soldiers and an even greater number of civilians, who died as a result of bombings, starvation, and deliberate campaigns of mass murder. The war also ushered in the atomic age and was quickly followed by the collapse of the wartime alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union and the beginning of the Cold War. World War I created the conditions that led to World War II. The peace settlement ending the war, which stripped the Central Powers of territory and arms and required them to pay reparations, left lasting bitterness in Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Turkey. The peace treaty also disappointed two of the victors, Italy and Japan. In addition, the war severely disrupted Europe’s economies and helped set the stage for the Great Depression of the 1930s. General histories of the war, which examine the war’s origins, military history, and consequences, include John Keegan, The Second World War (1989); C. L. Sulzberger and Stephen E. Ambrose, American Heritage New History of World War II (1997); and Gerhard L. Weinberg, A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II (1994). Valuable reference works include I. C. B. Dear and M. R. D. Foot, eds. , The Oxford Companion to the Second World War (1995); John Ellis, World War II: A Statistical Survey (1993); and John Keegan, ed. , The Times Atlas to the Second World War (1989). To understand the war’s outcome, see Richared Overy, Why the Allies Won (1995). The most thorough and balanced recent history of the American role in World War II is David M. Kennedy, Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945 (1999), which examines the causes of U. S. involvement in the conflict, wartime diplomacy, military strategy, and the war’s economic and social implications. The question of how Japan was able to carry out its successful surprise attack on Pearl Harbor is thoroughly examined in Gordon W. Prange, At Dawn We Slept: The Untold Story of Pearl Harbor (1982). The war’s European theater is discussed in Stephen L. McFarland and Wesley Phillips Newton, To Command the Sky: The Battle for Air Superiority Over German, 1942-1944 (1991); Nathan Miller, War at Sea: A Naval History of World War II (1995); and James Polmar and T. B. Allen, World War II (1996). Soldiers’ wartime experiences are examined in Gerald F. Linderman, The World Within War: America’s Combat Experience in World War II (1997). On the Pacific War, see John Dower, War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (1986), Akira Iriye, Power and Culture: The Japanese-American War, 1941-1945 (1981), and Ronald Spector, Eagle Against the Sun (1985) World War II transformed the American homefront. It jump-started the economy; ended Depression-era unemployment, relocated Americans in unprecedented numbers, and permanently altered the status of women, adolescents, and racial minorities in American life. The war’s impact on the homefront is analyzed in William L. O’Neill, A Democracy at War: America’s Fight at Home and Abroad in World War II (1993). Oral histories from the war years can be found in Studs Terkel, The Good War (1984). World War II had a dramatic impact on women’s lives. The most visible change involved the appearance of large numbers of women in uniform, as more than 250,000 women joined the WACs, the Army Nurses Corps, the WAVES, and the Navy Nurses Corps. The war also challenged the conventional image of female behavior, as â€Å"Rosie the Riveter† became the popular symbol of women who worked in defense industries. Wartime transformations in women’s lives are examined in Susan M. Hartmann, The Homefront and Beyond: Women in the 1940s (1982) and D’Ann Campbell, Women at War with America: Private Lives in a Patriotic Era (1984). World War II affected children and adolescents no less than women. In fact, the word â€Å"teenager† first appeared during the war. William M. Tuttle, Jr. , Daddy’s Gone to War: The Second World War in the Lives of America’s Children (1993) traces the changes in young peoples’ lives. During World War II, African Americans waged battles on two fronts. They helped the country win the war overseas and pressed for equal rights at home. This dual struggle for victory against fascism and discrimination, known as the â€Å"Double V† campaign, is examined in Neil Wynn, The Afro-American and the Second World War (1976). The internment of 112,000 mainland Japanese Americans, one of the most shameful chapters in American history, is examined in Peter Irons, Justice at War: The Story of the Japanese Internment Cases (1983). A 1942 government report on the Pearl Harbor attack, written by Supreme Court Justice Owen J. Roberts, which claimed without supporting evidence that the Japanese had received support from some Japanese Americans, helped to create a climate of opinion that led to internment. World War II marked the dawn of the atomic age. The development of nuclear weapons is thoroughly examined in Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (1986). The decision to drop two atomic bombs on Japan remains one of the most controversial decisions in military history. Martin Sherwin, A World Destroyed: The Atomic Bomb and the Grand Alliance (1975) analyzes the factors that went into this decision.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Electronic books verses paper book Essay

Reading is a big part of our lives, whether you are reading for work, school or pleasure, books, newspapers or magazines, it is something that most people do on a daily basis. Today, there are different ways you can read: either electronically or by paper. Electronic devices are starting to run our lives, by getting an e-book or e-reader (kindle, nook, iPad, etc†¦) reading could change for the average reader. Electronic readers are better than paper books. Having an electronic reader can be very convenient. You can rent or buy books, magazines, and newspapers for free from virtual libraries similar to the way you would from your local public library. There are a lot more books available through the virtual library. Since it is a virtual library, you are using Wi-Fi and you can instantly receive your reading material electronically. Usually when you rent a book from the virtual library, you can have it for as long as you like, but are limited to one book month. However, it is quicker than getting in your car and driving to the library or store to get a book. â€Å"The convenience of downloads saves transportation costs and reduces carbon emissions from book distribution and consumer travel to and from bookstores. † (Maxwell & Miller, 2013, para. 4). Loaning books to family or friends is a bit easier with having the psychical book to give. Yet, some devices may allow you to share downloaded books with others. All things are faulty in life. â€Å"As convenient as the use of different e-readers can be, technology isn’t always reliable. † (Taylor, 2013, para.4). Since e-readers are an electronic device, you have to charge the battery; however, it can last for a month or two. The screen can break on e-readers just as easy as a page can tear out of a book. You can change the font size if you have difficulty reading small print and you can also adjust the screen brightness so you can read in the sunlight or in the dark. Paper books do not need to hold a charge for you to enjoy and the screen will not ever break, but pages can tear. The font size is what you get and it cannot be altered on what is already printed. It is nice to have a collection of books and you can do that with either an e-reader or paper books. With your e-reader you can carry all of your books at once and your paper books can be on display in your home. E-readers are pretty slim and light-weight, some books can almost double the weight and be bulky. For the average college student, e-readers may be better so they are not carrying a few different heavy books around campus. Electronic readers are much more diverse than paper books. There are a dictionaries built into e-readers, so you can look up a word just by highlighting it. A great feature to e-readers is it has a bookmark to save your place. Turning the page is as simple as a tap or swipe along the screen of the e-reader, whereas with a paper book or newspaper you physically flip the pages. Reading with children may be better with paper books, but tablets can be used as an e-reader and games and learning applications can be downloaded for children. â€Å"Many e-readers also offer Web browsing, games, music, movies and an endless array of apps such as The Weather Channel or Microsoft Office to enhance the user experience† (Cancio, 2011, para. 3). Children growing up today will probably be reading more things electronically at school, so getting them use to the electronic devices young can be a good thing. With technology advancing so rapidly, it can be hard to keep up with the advancements. Paper books are great if you are a book collector who wants to show off those books and if you do not mind carrying them around. In the long run, e-readers can be more convenient and cost efficient because of the discount on the books being electronic instead of printed. If you enjoy reading while traveling, lying in bed, and want to have a large selection of books to choose from and receive them quickly, e-readers are the better option for you. References Brown, Taylor. (2013, October 3). The best of both worlds: E-readers vs. traditional books. Cal Times. Retrieved from http://sai. calu. edu/caltimes/index. php/2013/10/03/the-best-of-both-worlds-e-readers-vs-traditional-books/ Cancio, C. (2011, March 7). Are e-readers making books obsolete? Retrieved from http://electronics. howstuffworks. com/gadgets/other-gadgets/e-readers-making-books-obsolete. htm Maxwell, R. , Miller, T. (2013, September 5). Greening the media. Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://www. psychologytoday. com/blog/greening-the-media/201309/don-t-be-misled-about-paper-versus-electronic-books

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Zen and the Way of the Sword: Arming the Samurai Psyche

Winston L. King is a known Buddhist writer who has mainly presented the different issues of Buddhism in a well versed manner that it could be assessed as a major practice of discipline that could be applied to different activities in the society today. In this particular reading, Buddhism has been noted to assist in the process of using meditation as a matter of increasing concentration among samurai practitioners to make their activity a more efficient and applicable practice of defense and art. About the Book As mentioned earlier, the book further discusses the major issues that relate Zen meditation to the practices of Samurai. More than just the relation of Zen to Samurai practice, the book further notes the needed thought that provokes the possibilities of making the Zen meditation as a major source of discipline among different practices of martial arts and self defense among several enthusiasts of the said practice. Content and Summary Zen is a sect of Buddhism that emphasizes religious meditation. It was a belief introduced in China in 520 by Bodhidharma. It has mainly two branches both concentrating on meditation practices on different aspects. One is the za-zen which is plain meditation while the koan is a meditation problem with no logical solution. Other forms of meditation, which were not discussed in this part of the discussion, could well be described as simple forms of medical advancement to deal with stress. But still, many others rooted out from religious beliefs and practices such as the Yoga and the Zen practice. Still regarding meditation, a Neurologist, James H. Austin M. D. talks about the Zen meditation and its relation to the brain. For him it is more than just a religious practice. Zen, according to him has a reasonable biological explanation behind all the practices it promotes. As he has written in his book, he shows that chemical messengers (hormones) are affected by the sensory input, also he points out how the brain is wired and how are its parts like the Thalamus acts as a sensory gate. It also includes the fact that the olfactory system bypasses the thalamus and acts directly on the mid-brain and affects the chemical signals. With regards to these details, Austin makes it clear how the Zen meditation practice works for a person as it directly involves how the brain along with its parts and functions help in making the Zen practice a successful one. Reaction and Critique It is through this reading that the Zen practice is noted as a major source of discipline for individuals practicing the art of self defense. Although it cold be noted that the author prepared a much effective way in presenting the said meditation in more positive view, he at least forgot, or might as well said overlooked the fact that there are certain spiritual elements of the people practicing the said meditation that might be affected by the belief that Zen practice itself suggests. Moreover, being a Buddhist himself, King may have better presented his claims and explanations about the Zen practice in a more general perspective that could assist in making the procedures of discipline much applicable for all other groups of people. Considerably, the manner by which samurai practitioners apply Zen in their way of living could also be used by other non=samurai individuals who are simply wanting to have an idea of how the meditation actually works. This way, the book would not only be able to cater to samurai enthusiasts but also to other people who are simply wanting to know something about the Zen meditation. Undeniably though, the book of King could be considered a fine read for those who are wanting to appreciate the benefits of personal discipline through the different approaches of meditation.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Jurisprudence (Ethics and Morality) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Jurisprudence (Ethics and Morality) - Essay Example Kautilya2 an ancient Indian scholar who's Arthasastra is famous for its depiction of instructions and advices to a king clearly required the state to provide for the maintenance of childless women. In his view moral considerations were not to occupy the politics, which should simply concentrate on victory only. The magnum opus Arthasastra fulfils the requirements of twentieth century international law for the recognition of a state. In ancient Rome, pontiffs and their sons were alone empowered to deliver judgements. Only in third century BC some eminent groups like Proculians and Sabinians produced a relevant literature. In the cultural movement during Byzantine Empire in 5th century only Justinian's Corpus Juris Civilis was born.3 Feminist jurisprudence is a philosophy based on political, economic and social equality of sexes. This theory is believed to have sprung up in 1960s. Feminists strongly believe that gender is created not by biological difference but by social interpretations. Physical appearances and capacity of reproduction of women, according to them, should be considered as identity factors only. In other areas like psychological, social and moral traits, women are to be treated at par with men. Although feminists have a common ideology of women rights, they are divided among themselves in some basic thoughts. Liberal feminists are staunch in their endeavour of erasing gender-based discriminations in recognised laws against women. Cultural feminists aspire for the recognition of women's moral voice of caring and communal values. Radical feminists strongly object to simply accommodating the physiological and emotional differences of women, but they require a society to construct an equality of sex based on these differences. The practicability of feminist jurisprudence lies in accepting the fact that people live in a patriarchal society. Researchers derive at a conclusion that patriarchy emerged since the advent of agrarian societies; they are of the view that women were enjoying relatively high status in pre-agrarian societies. The role of women in this period is something more than childbearing and caring the family as they shared the production related works with males. (Patrie, 1923) Agrarian production brought importance to ploughs and consequently to males who became the breadwinners of the family and began to posses control over resources. During this era, the might of women in their family administration was tactfully recognised by men within the walls of the family making them feel 'moron' outside their family. First-wave feminism prevailed from nineteenth century up to late 1960,during when abortion and contraception were not the issues handled by the feminists, who involved in political power games behind policy making in the UK and France; they were campaigning in favour of education, employment, marital rights and rights to vote only. They began to think of contraception followed by abortion only after First World War. Feminists in France happened to realise the need for abortion after the Second World War. Technological developments in the aftermath of World War II threw light on use of contraceptives and non-surgical abortion. France still under the strong

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Predictably irrational Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Predictably irrational - Essay Example As a result of these accounts of conscious perceptions, we often assume that the experiences constitute a single fundamental reality. Based on this broad judgment, Venkat further reaffirms that, â€Å"the imperative nature of consciousness is practically beyond logical doubt and rather evident through predictable behavior.† (n.pag). Many make the assumption that, they are actually settling for rational and smart choices, without taking into consideration the possibility that their behavior is actually predictable. After reading Ariely’s book, I came to realize that I am also predictably irrational, especially in my life as a student, as shown by analogies drawn hereunder between the authors’ illustrations and incidents in my life. According to Ariely, it is rather intriguing to note that, human expectations, societal norms and emotions, among other undermined aspects of life, which ordinarily seem illogical, often control our capability to reason. This is a concl usion that the author draws from the fact that people astoundingly make simple mistakes, yet repeat the same types of faults daily. The author’s line of thought begins when he asks â€Å"Do our first impressions and decisions become imprinted?† (25). He goes on to elaborate that we usually overpay for certain items when shopping, we also underestimate expenses and keep procrastinating duties we are supposed to carry out eventually. The author is keen to note that these misguided doings are not random, and neither are they senseless. Apparently, these actions are logical and foreseeable, as illustrated by the experiment showing how students’ social security numbers influenced their bids for wine (Ariely 28). This possibility is explicated by Ariely in various chapters of his book, as well as, in Plato’s â€Å"Allegory of the Cave†, as discussed in subsequent paragraphs. In chapter six of his book, â€Å"Predictably Irrational†, Ariely focuses on the crucial aspects of self-control and procrastination (Ariely 109-119). Through a comprehensive experiment, the author realizes that his students tend to perform better in class assignments, when deadlines for work submission are spaced all through the semester, than when the deadline is set on the final day of the school term. This is an aspect he attributes to the tendency of learners to postpone work, when they think that they have sufficient time to finish writing the assignments, prior to the semester’s end. In the long run, students rush during the last minute only to do unsatisfactory work and, consequently, acquire poor grades. In contrast, spacing out deadlines and imposing potential grade or financial penalties, in addition to simplification of tasks, makes it easy for students to deal with their assignments early enough. This is because such efforts inspire self-control among students and lower incidents of procrastination. The occurrence of procrastination a mong individuals is also supported by O’Donoghue and Rabin, who suggest that â€Å"people may occasionally purchase items with high prices based on the notion that the price is

Identify an up and coming or a new business, identify the strengths Research Paper

Identify an up and coming or a new business, identify the strengths and weaknesses or challenges, and your forecast of the company's success - Research Paper Example The business will gain from a corporation since all profits, losses and taxes are presented to the federal administration, and all the personnel as well as the owners file their individual income duties. The corporation can attract more financiers to the enterprise for development, and therefore, all losses, liabilities, and profits can be shared. Furthermore, lenders and vendors will award more prospects to a corporation. One of the limitations of the company is the double taxation since the owner has to pay taxes for the company as a distinct entity and the stockholders must file for the taxes too. This may prove tasking since the company has just been established and it is still trying to find its ground (Internal Revenue Services, par 3). Another challenge facing the company is keeping up with the marketplace since business settings change continually. The company must keep up with the market to meet its customers’ needs. The company can obtain information sources that afford insights on market trends and conditions (Internal Revenue Services, par 8). The other challenge is that the company does not have the right systems to delegate tasks and responsibilities. Financing the right systems such as quality control can improve the company’s productivity and convince clients that the firm can be trusted (Bizoffice par 2). Another challenge is welcoming change. Change can be overwhelming for a new company since change demands adequate resources and time, which the company may not have, and the company might not have the capacity to incorporate change (Internal Revenue Services, par 7). A change like personnel dismissal or changing suppliers can be dangerous for the business. Change demands coaching and developing personnel and being updated about the new technologies, which can be costly for a new company (Bizoffice par 3). The other challenge facing the company is the challenge of

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

The Thomas Jefferson Presidency Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Thomas Jefferson Presidency - Essay Example The first way is to assess the presidency of Thomas Jefferson based on how writers during or close to the period viewed the presidency. The other way is to assess it on the basis of two key indicators: 1) economic growth and economic management data during the period; and 2) political institutional data associated with his rule. Of the former, a good indicator can be provided by the inaugural statements of President Thomas Jefferson himself. ... land, traversing all the seas with the rich productions of their industry, engaged in commerce with nations.† 7 Perhaps, the best indicator of what eight years of the presidency of Thomas Jefferson have brought to America is the presidential inaugural address of James Madison in 1809. Speaking on 4 March 1809, after 8 years of the rule of Thomas Jefferson, Madison said that the US national prosperity was â€Å"at a height not before attained.†8 Madison also pointed out that under the Jefferson administration â€Å"†¦the fruits of a just policy were enjoyed in an unrivalled growth† of United States faculties and resources.9 According to Madison, the proof of the unrivalled growth can be seen â€Å"in the improvements of agriculture, in the successful enterprises of commerce, in the progress of manufacturers and useful arts, in the increase of the public revenue and the use made of it in reducing the public debt, and in the valuable works and establishment eve rywhere multiplying over the face of our land.† 10 It is clear, therefore, that we have a good and a reliable basis to say that President Thomas Jefferson has been successful as a president of the US and his achievements can be considered as extraordinary during his time as he was credited to have expanded the United States territory through the Louisiana Purchase. The success of Thomas Jefferson is also supported by solid data. One piece of such data is growth in gross domestic product in real 2005 terms. This is documented by MeasuringWorth, a data collection institution in the internet. Figure 1 from the website is illustrative. Figure 1. US GDP in real terms, 1795 to 1820 Source: It is clear from the MeasuringWorth data that the US real GDP data was on the

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Journal 3 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Journal 3 - Essay Example Instead of telling us what we needed in the bag, the teacher gave us suggestions about what we might need and invited us to come up with ideas for what we would like to pack. After we finished, we discussed why we chose the items we did. I selected this activity because it gives a good example of how my teacher performed more of a helper/ mentor role with us, rather than a strict lecturer role. Due to her encouraging way of doing the lesson , there were fewer arguments than there would have been if she had required all of the students to put a predetermined list of items into the suitcase. The teacher implemented Standard 1. Promoting Child Development and Learning. She also implemented Standard 5. Using Content Knowledge to Build Meaningful Curriculum. I learned that being a helper or a mentor to children can be a smoother and more effective way to assist in the learning process of children. If I were to do this activity with my children, I would discuss with them before we began about what they might place in their suitcases. I would still discuss why the children chose the items that they did at the end of the activity. That really promoted some deeper thinking from the students in my

Monday, September 23, 2019

How Chinese TV maintain its position in new media age Dissertation

How Chinese TV maintain its position in new media age - Dissertation Example It was in the 1990s that China embarked upon a conscious policy of rapid industrialization; it was around those years that it began to break free of its restrictive political system as well. In the 1990s the prime elements of globalization had already become established the globe over. For Instance, there were substantial and ever rising cross-border movements of production resources, technology, and capital; there were an excellent telecommunication and communications networking conjunction with other infrastructural facilities and most importantly the international trade was rising and becoming freer. China already had a substantial infrastructure and no sooner did it decide to adopt free market norms then it became a mammoth and lucrative market for global entrepreneurs. Moreover, China had, on the tip-toe, built upon its economic might as a producer and began modernization of its production sphere through steady policy making and technology grafting and had assumed the center sta ge role in the global supply of various goods and services. Thus China studiously caught on with the wave of globalization and reaped enormous economic gains. As a result, China enjoyed a hastened pace of development, and in the present time, it is one of the fastest-growing countries in the world. China was already a healthy economic power with an annual average Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate of 9.8 percent in real terms between 1978 and 1994. The Chinese government had also set up ambitious targets for economic growth for the country.... For Instance there were substantial and ever rising cross-border movements of production resources, technology and capital; there was an excellent telecommunications and communications network (internet included) in conjunction with other infrastructural facilities and most importantly the international trade was rising and becoming freer. China already had substantial infrastructure and no sooner did it decide to adopt free market norms then it became a mammoth and lucrative market for global entrepreneurs. Moreover China had, on the tip toe, built upon its economic might as a producer and began modernization of its production sphere through steady policy making and technology grafting and had assumed the centre stage role in global supply of various goods and services. Thus China studiously caught on with the wave of globalization and reaped enormous economic gains. As a result, China enjoyed a hastened pace of development, and in the present time, it is one of the fastest-growing countries in the world. China was already a healthy economic power with an annual average Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate of 9.8 percent in real terms between 1978 and 1994. Chinese government had also set up ambitious targets of economic growth for the country in its five year plans. For instance China's ninth five year plan (1995-2000) had set a target for quadrupling its GDP in 2000 over the level recorded in 1980 and the plan further envisaged doubling the year 2000 GDP in the year 2010, with operational target of average annual GDP growth rate of 8% between the years 1995-2000 and of 7 % between the years 2000-2010.If China was able to succeed in restraining the growth rate of its population than its per capita GDP(in 1996 base

Sunday, September 22, 2019

The School of Athens by Raphael Essay Example for Free

The School of Athens by Raphael Essay The School of Athens by Raphael is a complex painting with a fascinating composition. The subjects, building, composition and his use of color make it a compelling piece. This painting is extremely decorative and complex. With various tools, Raphael was able to emphasize different aspects and pull the viewer into the work. Because of the colors used in the painting, and the setting, this painting seems to be of religious or educated figures. This painting has many subjects, most of which appear to be male. Knowing that most renaissance paintings have both genders, one would conclude that there are a few females. All of the subjects are wearing colorful, flowing robes. The fact that they have colorful clothing on symbolizes a high rank. This rank is either of the church or of land. The highly crafted building the subjects are in leads the viewer to think that the rank is from the church or education. In the middle, the subjects are surrounding two men. Everyone seems to be listening to the men. The men in the bottom left are reading or writing, what could be the primary mens words. The ones in the bottom right are surrounding a board on the floor and could be discussing the words of the men. With all of the conversing going on, and the layout of the people, one would assume that this is a lecture setting. This story is going on in a large, ornate, arched-ceiling building. This building is painted from top to bottom. The main arch in the front has a very geometric pattern on it but the column connecting it to the ground is flowery. There is gold on the ceiling, on the decorative pieces between each painting. The top-left corner has a large rock painted on a background of gold. There is a person standing behind it but the edge of the painting cuts it off at the waist. Under the large rock painting, there is a smaller gold tree on a blue background. These two colors are the epitome or wealth because they are the most costly to buy. In the top right corner, again cut off by the border of the painting, there is a group or what appear to be women. They are focused around some type of animal in the middle. Below this is the same tree as the opposite side. The filling between the two large paintings and the smaller trees is all triangular. It has an ornate pattern in blue and gold, just like the trees. In the bottom left-hand corner, there is a framed square, which looks like it is a mirror. The way there is wood  in it but no other bare wood anywhere in the picture makes it seem to be a reflection. Behind the large arch in the front, there is a hallway type of structure. It has a statue on each side with smaller carved scenes under them. The hallway, which opens up to a ceiling-less patio has statues, similar to the ones on the wall. The archways have geometric carved patterns covering the ceilings. Unlike the foreground arch, the background ones are white stone; there is no paint or gold on them. As the arches become smaller and the sky becomes larger, the pure blue sky with fluffy white clouds begins to show. This painting is very realistic, because of the detail of ornamental pieces and because of the accuracy of the structure. The perspective is precise; larger things are in the foreground and smaller things are in the background. Unlike earlier paintings, the building looks like you could walk through it. The scale of the subjects is also very accurate. Some earlier works had the most important characters larger and in the middle. The values, which differ in the arches, show depth. The arches are darker on the underside and on the right walls, to show a direction of light from the right. The people on the sides are not exact copies but the fact that they are on both sides makes the painting approximately symmetrical. The evenness of the arches also emphasizes the symmetrical characteristic. The composition of the image is made interesting by the complexity of the people. The empty building without the individuals in it would be an architectural study. The colors in this painting pull the viewer in. The use of gold in modesty, compared to many other paintings, makes the whole painting brighten. The colors on the robes are impressive. The subjects closer to the two in the middle have more primary and secondary colored gowns while the perimeter has primarily tertiary colored clothing. This may have to do with class or emphasis. As concluded earlier, the middle subjects are significant so to make them stand out, the robes are more vibrant. The archway in the front is much more decorative and frames the subjects underneath. With the arches in the back being less showy, the foreground with the people stands out more. In conclusion, this painting has many facets and details, which could go unnoticed. Raphael stressed certain parts by using color and framing. The context leads one to believe that the subjects are knowledgeable. With the color, composition and subjects combined, this painting is a significant piece. The School of Athens is an elaborate painting with a multifaceted story.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

A Report On Madurai

A Report On Madurai Madurai Madurai is a temple city located in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu and is one of the most ancient cities in India. Madurai is said to have existed from the pre Christian era. Madurai, according to scriptures and religious texts, is said to have been established in the Sangam age the golden age of Tamil literature. Significance History records the visit of the Greek philosopher, Megasthanes in the third century BC and was followed by visits by scholars and traders from ancient Greece and Rome. Madurai was the seat of learning during the Sangam era and flourished under the reign of the Pandya dynasty. However, the creation of temples to make Madurai the city of temples as it is known today can be attributed to Thirumalai Nayak who initiated the construction of many magnificient temples around the 15th century. Attractions The Meenakshi Sundareshwar Temple: This temple dominates the skyline of the city center and Madurai city is built around the Meenakshi Sundareshwar temple which is surrounded by concentric streets believed to symbolize the structure of the cosmos. It is one of the greatest Shiva temples in Tamil Nadu and was built by Kulasekhara, a Pandya king. The temple was built to commemorate the love of Goddess Meenakshi and her groom Sundareshwar. Thiruparankundram Temple: Located 25 km away from the city, this temple is said to have built to celebrate the wedding of Lord Murugan, the resident deity of Tamil Nadu in many ways, to Devainai. The Thiruparankundram temple is older than the Meenakshi Sundareshwar temple. Goripalyam Dargah: Built the spot where two famous saints of Islam are buried, Goripalyam Dargah, literally translated, means built on a grave (gor = grave in Persian). Located off the Vaigai river, this dargah is an architectural marvel and boasts of a 70 ft circular dome carved of a single block of stone. Kazimar Mosque: One of the most ancient mosques that was built by Hazrat Kazi Syed Tajuddin in the 13th century. The Kazimar mosque is situated in the heart of the city. St. Marys Cathedral Church: This is the seat of the archbishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese in Madurai. St. Marys Cathedral church is one of the oldest Roman Catholic church in India. The church is situated very close to Thirumalai Nayak Bhavan, another popular tourist attraction. Azhagar Temple: Located about 25 km from the city the Azhagar temple is a shrine dedicated to Lord Vishnu. The enshrined deity however, is Lord Kallazhagar. How to Reach Catch a plane and land at the Madurai airport which is a mere 9 km from the city centre. Madurai station is a major junction on the southern line and is also one of the busiest. The city is well connected by road with Chennai and all other major cities in India.

Friday, September 20, 2019

World Trade Organisation and Legalization :: essays research papers fc

"The WTO is now a debating society with a Supreme Court". Has the legalization of the WTO weakened its diplomacy-based negotiating mechanism? With the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO), dispute settlement has moved to the centre stage of the multilateral trading order. Hence, in this essay I will consider the effects of the new Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM) on trade relations. At first, I will illustrate how the DSM operates and how it is different from dispute settlement under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Secondly, I will underline the relative success of the new DSM but also point to some emerging problems and weaknesses inherent in a highly legalized DSM. I will conclude that the DSM has weakened the WTO’s diplomacy-based negotiating mechanism as the emphasis of dispute settlement has markedly shifted from political bargaining to legal proceedings. Yet, I will contend that the description of the WTO as a â€Å"debating society† is inadequate since member states are explicitly creating and enforcing trade rules rather then just debating over them. Moreover, to portray the new DSM as a â€Å"Supreme Court† seems implausible since on the one hand, it represents an ad-hoc two-tier system and not a full time court; on the other, it still supports and favours out-of-court settlements at almost any stage of the legal process. The goal of establishing a more effective DSM during the Uruguay Round negotiations was to foster the creation of a â€Å"rule-oriented system† that gives guidance in the way of predictable and generally stable rules to all participants of the multilateral world trading system (Article 3.2 of the DSU ). Although international trade is understood in the WTO as the flow of goods and services between members, it is typically not conducted by states, but rather by private economic actors. These market participants need stability and predictability in the government laws, rules and regulations applying to their commercial activity, especially when they conduct trade on the basis of long-term transactions. Hence, the DSU aims to provide a fast, efficient, dependable and rule-oriented system to resolve disputes about the application of the provisions of the WTO agreement. An interesting facet of the cases brought so far to the DSM is the much higher amount of participation by develop ing countries. They have brought a number of the cases themselves, even against some of the big industrial trading entities (Thailand vs. US in December 2004 or Korea vs.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Would You Buy a Car That Looked Like This Essay -- Article Review, And

Andrew Simms, a policy director and head of the Climate Change Program for the New Economics Foundation in England, presents his argument about the impact SUV’s have on our roadways, and the air we breathe. â€Å"Would You Buy a Car That Looked like This? â€Å". The title alone gives great insight on what the article is going to be about, (vehicles). â€Å"They clog the streets and litter the pages of weekend colour *supplements. Sport utility vehicles or SUV’s have become badges of middle class aspiration† (Simms 542). Simms opening statement not only gives his opinion on how SUV’s are the new trend, but he also paints a picture of what we see every day driving down our roadways. Simms also compares the tobacco industry’s gap between image and reality to that of SUV’s; stating that the cause and consequences of climate change resemble smoking and cancer. Simms comparison between SUV’s and cigarettes shows how dangerous he believes SUV’s are. Simms believes that the SUV’s we’ve grown to love are dangerous and polluting. Simms describes just how damaging he believes SUV’s to be with a quote, set to become, â€Å"one of the world’s most common causes of death and disability-ahead of TB, HIV, and war† (qtd. in Simms 542). This is a very strong statement; so strong that it causes the reader to question the source. It also promotes an emotional appeal to the reader. Death, war, and HIV are very serious issues; comparing them to SUV’s causes a need for attention. Next Simms addresses how the Global warming conference in two weeks causes urgency for some new thinking on SUV’s. This statement shows Simms concerns about Global warming and the effects from SUV’s. It also shows his need to inform. Then Simms introduces his solution, â€Å"So shouldn’t SUV’s now ... ...countries Simms assumes readers will feel that it’s time for America to acknowledge the SUV Problem too; and also take action. Finally Simms concludes his argument with his labeling solution. Simms proposes setting a threshold guideline; which could be set to trigger the labeling when the efficiency drops below a certain threshold. â€Å"Like those for cigarettes, the warnings could cover 30-50 percent of the vehicles surface area† (Simms 544). Simms also states that this method won’t stop SUV’s from being driven, but would force them to except the consequences of their actions, and help the education drive on global warming and traffic safety .In other words it would help the industry move out of denial. Simms statement shows that he has a realistic view on his solution. Also his conclusion reinforced his idea, promoted thought and gave readers a visual.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The Odyssey, by Homer, is an Epic Essay -- Epic Narrative

An epic is a long, episodic narrative poem that recounts the adventures of a historical or mystical hero. Episodic narratives have a larger story broken down into closely connected, but individual and separate sections. Some important qualities that distinguish an epic are unrealistic antagonists, the Gods and Goddesses playing important roles, and a story involving the re-establishment of a proper leader. â€Å"The Odyssey†, by Homer, is an epic because Odysseus (the hero) faces supernatural antagonists, the gods and goddesses play an important role, and Odysseus is being restored as a rightful leader. Throughout the story, Odysseus faces several supernatural antagonists. One of these antagonists is a creature named Scylla. In a daring and dangerous section of the epic, the story mentions, â€Å"He and his crew must pass between Scylla and Charybdis. Scylla is a terrifying monster with six heads. She dwells in a high rocky cave, devouring sailors in ships that pass close by.†(Homer 617) Scylla is a supernatural monster because no large creatures have been identified in the world to have six heads. She is Odysseus’ antagonist because in this particular section, Odysseus must challenge the monster by sailing close by, without losing sailors. However, Scylla devours six of his men, one for each head. Therefore, by losing his men to Scylla, the monster is noticeably an antagonist. Prior to the encounter with Scylla, Odysseus faces a one-eyed monster named Polyphemus. Polyphemus lives in the land of the Cyclops, and Odysseus is eager to meet this â€Å"mountai n king†. An excerpt from the story of the Cyclops Odysseus reports, â€Å"†¦but in one stride he clutched at my companions and caught two in his hands like squirming puppies t... ...raits. By learning from his mistakes, Odysseus will be more knowledgeable of how a king would act. The development of leadership traits is the final point that makes â€Å"The Odyssey† an epic. â€Å"The Odyssey†, by Homer, is an epic because Odysseus (the hero) faces supernatural antagonists, the Gods and Goddesses play an important role, and Odysseus is mortal and possesses flaws and imperfections. Odysseus encounters monsters such as the Cyclopes, and Scylla and Charybdis. He interacts with the Gods Zeus and Poseidon. Odysseus is also in the process of gaining leader-like traits such as judgment and cautiousness. â€Å"The Odyssey† is an epic journey full of Odysseus’ quests and adventures. Works Cited Homer. "The Odyssey." Adventures in Reading. Ed. Dorothy Diemer Hendry. Trans. Robert Fitzgerald. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1989. 599-653. Print.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Using the Symbolic Interaction and the Cybernetics Theory

ST. PAULS UNIVERSITY-NAIROBI CAMPUS NAME: SAKWA M. JAMES ADM NO. : 0915/11 UNIT NAME: THEORIES OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION ASSIGNMENT: REACTION PAPER BASED ON THE MOVIE THE BLINDSIDE USING THE SYMBOLIC INTERACTION AND THE CYBERNETICS THEORY PRESENTED TO: MR. J. NDAVULA Use of Symbolic-Interaction Approach â€Å"Symbolic Interactionism† is a concept developed by, George Hebert Mead (Griffin, 2009). Symbolic Interactionism has three core premises which lead â€Å"to the creation of a person’s self and socialization into a larger community† (Griffin, 2009).It is a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals. When we use symbolic-interaction theory with this movie we see how Michael is a homeless teenager trying to fit in. We see when he goes to school he struggles to fit in and how he stays quiet throughout the day. You can also use the S. I. theory on how Micheal when he was homeless he had ratty clothes and not many personal belongings. A S. I. theorist would look at Michael and see how he doesn't have a bed and is staying in the Tuohy house on a couch as a symbol of homelessness and poverty.Lastly when using this theory you see how the movie portrays and gives the homeless symbols of run down houses and having drugs and illegal activity going on in the movie. For instance having no bed or personal home for Michael Oher is a symbol of poverty. Perceptions â€Å"Humans act toward people based on the meanings they assign to those people†. Most people within the context of the Blindside seemed to write off Michael Oher. There were some who saw him as a young, African American male who was slow in the head, poorly educated and unkempt.Those would include, at least in the beginning of his time at the private school, most of his teachers and most of the others students. Because they ascribed to Michael their own beliefs, they never gave him a chance to reveal himself. There was an in teresting piece that Michael wrote one day in class where he stated, I look and I see white everywhere. White walls, white floors and a lot of white people. The teachers do not know I have no idea of anything they are talking about. I do not want to listen to anyone especially the teachers.They are giving homework and expecting me to do the problems on my own. I have never done homework in my life. I go to the bathroom and look in the mirror and say â€Å"this is not Michael Oher. † There was also the group who wondered why Mrs. Touhy would take in Michael. This group mostly consisted of her tea-time compatriots in the ritzy area of town. They were convinced that what Mrs. Touhy was doing â€Å"was so nice† and asked her if it was another one of those â€Å"charities† of hers. They saw Michael as a one-way recipient of charitable donations.They saw Michael as a tax write-off. Because of their viewpoints, they never could quite understand that Michael was changin g Mrs. Tuohy’s life, and that she loved him. It tells how the Tuohy’s came to reach out to Michael Oher and his life was changed, as was theirs. The movie was filled with excellent acting from all members of the cast with Sandra Bullock leading the way. This is a movie you leave impacted emotionally. The movie does show that it was not just the Tuohy’s involved in changing Michael’s life but many choices along the way.There was â€Å"Big Tony† Henderson, Mrs. Beasly, and Miss Sue all who made choices that helped Michael. Now the reality is that the movie is powerful but the story alters from the facts to fit the director’s vision. The full details of the story can be read in detail in Michael Lewis’s book: The Blind Side: Evolution of a Game. A sampling of the story can be found in a . REFERENCES: Netter,G,Kosove,A. & Johnson,. B(Producers) & Hancock,(Director). (2009) Blind Side: United States:Warner Bro Pictures.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Catcher in the rye Essay

The novels The Catcher in the Rye by J.D Salinger and Ordinary People by Judith Guest are very comparable in a way; the two novels demonstrate the daily obstacles that teenagers have to overcome. In The Catcher in the Rye it is shown to us that Holden Caulfield is trying to overcome depression and in Ordinary People it is shown to us that Conrad Jarrett gets accepted by his family members and peers again and finds happiness after his depression. The loss of a sibling can have a big impact and similar effects on two different people’s lives, such as Holden Caulfield and Conrad Jarrett. Their thoughts and actions that they make are much influenced by their peers, parents or guardians, and female relationship in their lives. To begin with, in The Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield does not have good relationship with his peers and instead he mainly criticizes them by thinking everyone around him is â€Å"phony†. For instance, since Holden is a â€Å"protector of innocence† he wanted to protect Jane, who is a girl that he once liked from Stradlater trying to do sexual intercourse, resulting into a fight. â€Å"†¦ [a]ll I know is I got up from the bed, like I was going down to the can or something, and then I tried to sock him, with all my might† (Salinger 43). This proves that through alienation Holden cannot get his feelings out quick enough which causes action to happen. Not only Holden uses violence to express his emotions but also Conrad Jarrett in the novel Ordinary People does the same. This can be shown when Conrad decides to attend a school swim-meet after school. As the meet ends, Conrad’s see his friends and as usual, Kevin Stillman begins to give Conrad a tough time, asking him about Jeannine. Conrad loses control and snaps by attacking Stillman â€Å"†¦ [t]he sound shattering the parking lot, the red brick wall of building behind him, the white doors, gray cement – all dissolving into broken bits of color, heading swiftly toward him as he slam his fist, hard, against that face† (Guest 143). After this conflict, Conrad realizes that he has always thought the loss of his brother only as it affects him. Next, this brings us to the theme of isolation in the context of peer relationships. In The Catcher in the Rye, Holden isolates himself from his peers. He relies on his isolation to maintain his detachment from the world and self-protection; he even often sabotages his own attempts to end loneliness. For instance, he calls out Sally Hayes for a date and urges her to run away with him to Massachusetts or Vermont, when Sally rejects him, he displays rude behavior as he states to her â€Å"[y]ou give me a royal pain in the ass, if you want to know the truth† (Salinger 133). On the other hand, Conrad opposes two types of characteristic in line with depression: a lack of feeling and a tendency towards isolation. Accordingly, Conrad creates an imaginary block between him and his peers. When he is alone, he would pull up onto his bed and â€Å"blocking out the sharp arrows of sun that pierce through the window† (Guest 10). In this way, he hides his unwanted emotions and feelings from his peers by being isolated. With the isolation between the two characters, they also lead into becoming anti-social with their peers. It is evident in The Catcher in the Rye that Holden does not have a good relationship with his peers. Holden has a strong anger against everyone and that results into having a hard time developing a relationship with peers. â€Å"Girls with lousy legs, girls that looked like swell girls, girls that looked like they’d be bitches if you knew them† (Salinger 123). This proves that Holden believes everyone surrounded by him are phonies because he cannot accept the fact that society changes. Likewise, Conrad becomes anti-social by spending more time in the library than with his friends and consequently he starts to lose his best friend Joe Lazenby. At one point in the novel, Joe Lazenby has a talk with Conrad, which ends up in an argument. Conrad then begins to feel hollow in the pit of his stomach, as if he was being punched and he thought to himself, â€Å"never mind him, screw him screw them they were all Buck’s friends anyway† (Guest 83). This suggests that Conrad is becoming more isolated and antisocial due to the loss of his brother Buck. Secondly, in addition to peer influence, Holden and Conrad are deeply affected by their relationships with their parents and guardians. To start off, Holden in the Catcher in the Rye is afraid to be seen by his parents from being kicked out of school. â€Å"I began to relax, sort of. I mean I finally quit worrying about whether they’d catch me home or not. I figured the hell with it. If they did, they did† (Salinger 163). It is apparent that the he does not want to be seen because his parents will just see him as a screw up, since his other brother D.B is more successful. This is similar to Conrad’s relationship with his parents in Ordinary People. Conrad feels that he is a disappointment to his parents, since his older brother has an image of being superior. To illustrate, â€Å"†¦ [b]ut it had been Conrad, shaken and scared who answered him, not Buck. Buck had never worried about anything† (Guest 117). Conrad is being compared to Buck, proving his weakness. Conrad is projecting a self-image of himself through his parents and which he is suggesting that he is â€Å"the problem†. As these two characters become more distant from their parents, they start receive less attention from them. In the case of Holden in the Catcher in the Rye, his parents just move him to another school instead of admitting that there may be something wrong with him. For example, â€Å" †¦ they’ll be pretty irritated about it, they really will. This is about the fourth school I’ve gone to† (Salinger 9). This indicates that Holden does not understand his parents and they do not understand him. In the same way, Conrad mostly has a hard time communicating with his mother and starts to feel isolated from her. For instance, it took Conrad one month to admit to his parents he had quit the swim team, as he was afraid of their disproval. When his parents found out, his mother becomes infuriated with him. Conrad replies and says, â€Å"I’m sure I would have told you. If you gave a damn!† (Guest 109). It is clear that the loss of Buck may have an impact on the poor communication between Conrad and his mother. It appears as though Conrad is still living in the pa st while his mother is trying to move on. Although the two characters have difficult relationships with their parents, they still have their guardians. To exemplify, Holden and his former school teacher Mr. Antolini have been friends for a long time, and the two are obviously close. It is evident Mr. Antolini cares a lot about his Holden, as he encourages him to take education more seriously and focus more on meaningful activities â€Å"I laid awake for just a couple of seconds thinking about all that stuff Mr. Antolini’d told me. About finding out the size of your mind and all. He was really a pretty smart guy† (Salinger 191). This demonstrates Mr. Antolini concerns about Holden. Similarly, Conrad is able to gain support from Dr. Berger, his psychiatrist. Conrad shows his close relationship with Dr. Berger by seeking lots of advice about his problems. For instance, Conrad was able to seek help from Dr. Berger when he was going through an emotional breakdown with his brother’s loss. Dr. Berger was able to provide comfort as he stated, â€Å"[i]t is a very far-out act of self-preservation, do you get that Con? And you were right. Nobody needs you to be Buck. It’s okay to be just you† (Guest 177). Dr. Berger ends up showing Conrad that healing from depression involves feeling anything, even anger. Lastly, Holden and Conrad each have important female figures in their lives. One of the important females to Holden would be his little ten-year-old sister, Phoebe. Phoebe helped Holden discover his problems and is the only one he trusts in his life. â€Å"Then I took my hunting hat out of my coat pocket and gave it to her. She likes those kind of crazy hats. She didn’t want to take it, but I made her† (Salinger 180). This demonstrates how much Holden trusts Phoebe because the red hunting hat was important to him during his journey. On the other hand, Conrad meets a girlfriend, Jeannine. Jeannine provides a rebuilding stage into Conrad’s life. While Jeannine is helping to rebuild Conrad’s life, Phoebe is helping Holden to resolve his problems. Although Phoebe is still young, she can tell that he needed her. For instance, Holden could not hold back and started to cry, â€Å"I couldn’t help it. I did it so nobody could hear me, but I did it †¦ she came over and tried to make me stop, but once you get started, you can’t just stop on a goddam dime† (Salinger 179). Jeannine gives Conrad the confidence required to challenge many problems. For example, â€Å"†¦ I said a stupid thing that day. I didn’t know about your brother, then. I’m sorry †¦ [t]here are worse things. People do worst things than that† (Guest 123). She lets him solves his own problems and does not get involved where she is not needed. Moreover, the girls have one similar effect on the boys; Phoebe and Jeannine makes them feel needed. To emphasize, Phoebe refuses Holden to leave for the West just to show how much she needs him. When Phoebe meets Holden, she states, â€Å"I’m going with you. Can I? Okay?† (Salinger 206). Also, when Jeannine was upset and started to cry over her mother’s new relationship with a man, Conrad was there to support her. Conrad mentioned that â€Å"[h]e feels as if he could stand here holding her forever †¦ he has never felt so strong, so needed† (Guest 159). This proves that without these females in both of Holden and Conrad’s lives, regaining and solving their problems would have been challenging. In conclusion, the lost connection in both of their lives was right in front of them the entire time. Both Holden and Conrad solved their problems with the love and forgiveness. Without their brothers that they have lost, parents and guardians, and female friends, the two main characters would not have been able to change into a better people In the end, the lesson that the two novels have taught us is that no matter what situation you are in, you will always be able to find your self and have support from many loved ones.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Hopelessness and Poverty in This Nation Essay

Opportunities in America, especially for those who have minimum wages and big families to support, are very limited. Jonathan Kozol presented a speech about poverty in America. In this, he talked about his experiences staying in a homeless center in New York, one of the wealthiest places in the nation, and how he â€Å"never found his way back home. † The people are easily unseen and greatly forgotten. Because of this, families in poverty do not get the same possibilities as wealthier people do. Opportunities in America should be equal for all people and to do this, actions need to be taken. The kinds of measures that need to be taken have to do with shelters, nourishment, and impartiality. Kozol was inspired to visit the homeless because of an article written the night before Christmas 1985, which told about a boy who died because he was premature. This resulted because the mother did not have the proper nourishment and care. The baby was already living on the streets before he was even a year old. This is a revolting fact to realize that baby’s are being born on the filthy city streets and are not being provided with the proper care. Kozol decided to visit the mother of the baby in a homeless shelter. He celebrated the holidays with families in the shelter where the food was cooked off of hotplates, because there were no ovens. He also said that the average child was only six years old. The living conditions in a homeless shelter are very unsanitary and when you are a child your immune system is not that strong and it is very unhealthy. Kozol explained how one day he was in Las Angeles when he spotted a family living on the streets. The mother came to Las Angeles to look for good rent but couldn’t find anything suitable enough. The husband was working in a sweatshop making only five hundred dollars a month, which is minimum wage. This was certainly not enough to pay for rent and support a family at the same time. Because of this, they were forced to live on the streets. Kozol was right, compassion is un-weighted and if you are born poor in a rich nation it is a major disadvantage. To make the opportunities in America more equal, there are many things that the government and more fortunate people could do. Since there were almost two thousand people in the shelter, I think that the cities should make more places for the homeless to come, have decent living conditions, and a source of food. There should be certain doctors for patients in need who do not have the money to pay for appointments. So that people who make minimum wage and are suffering get a fair chance, there should be people who can help find jobs for them, and help them get a chance with going to college. Everyone should have fair opportunities and have equality. People should start bending low and start helping those who are too frail to stand up. Everyone should have a shelter, nourishment, and equality. To do this people need to take a stand and start doing something about it. All people have the same rights; why not give all people the same likelihood of having the same experience of those who are more fortunate than others.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Positive Discrimination

Compensates MinoritiesFor centuries, blacks and minority groups were enslaved and oppressed. The upper-class groups enjoyed all the benefits and took a large share of the cake. These minorities worked for centuries without labor wages, were subjected to brutal punishments, their lands were snatched from them, and most of them were denied most of the fundamental rights provided by the Constitution. Affirmative action emphasizes on providing compensation to the descendants for the wrongs and ill treatments done to their ancestors.Serves As A BoosterMinority students, on a general note, start off at a disadvantageous level in college or job application process. They belong to lower income families and hence, have fewer opportunities to study in good private schools as opposed to other high-class students. Though they are equally capable of working hard and proving themselves, they are left behind due to their caste and class. Affirmative action balances these differences out.Exposure To Varied FieldsThrough affirmative action, men and women are exposed to areas of study or fields of work that they may not have otherwise considered trying their hands on. With the designing of affirmative action, men are brought into nursing, while women are familiarized to technology fields. The more the stereotypes are changed today, the less affirmative action we will require in the future.Positive discrimination towards women in society is justified. Yes because: Women require positive discirmination because in the past they were considered slaves in a patriarchal society. Presently, they are still dominated by men in a lot of social enviroments: family, work, on the street, and many others enviroments. For this reason women should have more benefits in society as an attempt to even out their disadvantaged status. â€Å"If anyone is disadvantaged it is men†. This quote sums up the idiocy of the oppositions argument. How many female presidents have there been? How female  CEO's are there of the worlds top companies?Workplace: A benefit of positive discrimination is that it ensures people won't be out of work because of their gender, race or other conditions or disabilities. It helps to level the professional playing field for different people.Disadvantages Of Affirmative ActionReverses DiscriminationThis is probably the most significant advantage of introducing affirmative action. It tends to put an end to discrimination and unfair treatment to students/employees on the basis of sex, race, color, religion, or national origin, while in reality, the opposite takes place. Whites work harder and are more qualified than blacks. As a result, they are strictly passed over the blacks in all fields of education and employment. With the introduction of affirmative action, a poor white is overlooked by a rich minority student, simply because of these measures.Lower Standards Of AccountabilityIf a minority student is able to get himself admitted to Harvard Uni versity with a 3.2 grade average, why should he put in extra efforts to get a 4.0? Such is the attitude of minority students who enjoy these benefits. There are students and employee who can push up to achieve excellent grades, but by setting low standards for admission or hiring, the accountability levels get lowered. Hard work, discipline, and achievement should be rewarded equally and not partially to people who simply belong to certain race or group.True Minority Achievement Is DemeanedIf you hear an underprivileged person describing his achievements as a result of hard work and talent, not all will be wrong to assume that his success is due to affirmative action. Considering major professional fields, such as doctors, lawyers, business leaders, and so on, most minority people are  demeaned and humiliated assuming that they achieved success on their preferential treatment. Thus, minorities are forced to work twice as hard to earn true respect and recognition.Positive discrimin ation towards women in society is justified. Not because: Discrimination is never ‘positive'. In a civilized society, it is not exceptable to treat people differently, on the basis of gender. Furthermore, the claim of women having a â€Å"disadvantaged status† is preposterous. A quick examination of our laws and societal practices shows that women have an incredibly advantaged status.They are not required to register for the draft, like men are. They have a government council devoted solely to them, whereas men do not. They have female-only scholarships and grants, whereas men do not. They have shelters to escape domestic violence, whereas men do not. They are protected from circumcision by law, whereas men are not. Their names are hidden when they accuse others of several kinds of crimes, whereas men are not. If anyone is disadvantaged, it's men.Men are 80% of suicides, 40% of colleges students, 40% of degree earners, 80% of the homeless, 80% of the layed off, and 92.7 % of the job deaths. Men are more likely to die from every major cause of death, and yet there exists no amount of medical funding and research for them, on par with that of women. And this is to say nothing, of the blatant discriminations, under the law, that men suffer, as mentioned above.Workplace: Positive discrimination is still discrimination, which continues to put emphasis on a person's gender, race or origin of birth. It can also be negative for someone pursuing the same job as a minority applicant. A person might be more qualified and still not get the job if the company is practicing positive discrimination.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Research in accounting and fiannce Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Research in accounting and fiannce - Essay Example There is no massive fluctuation in the share prices, but in the year 2009 it was least among the five years which shows little financial decline in the company’s performance. In the year 2012 the stock prices were highest among the five years which showed an increase in the financial performance of the company. There are many internal and external factors that affect the performance of an organization in both positive and negative way. The external forces that may affect the financial performance of Sainsbury are: Political force: The political forces residing in Europe and which may have an effect on the performance of Sainsbury are Euro Zone, European Union, rapidly globalizing businesses and many taxation rules policies. Economic factor: These factors can be rapidly changing interest rates, exchange rates, GDP of a country and Per capita Income, inflation, Job market and unemployment rate and company’s market share which may affect a company’s performance. Technological forces: Technological forces have great influences on the performance of any organization. This includes invention of new and modern products, innovation in products and improvements, etc. When the financial crisis of 2009-2010 hit the industry, it had no such disastrous influence on the financial condition of Sainsbury. In a report by Mr. Justin King it is said that the when the crisis hit the industry people changed their spending pattern but the sales of Sainsbury when revealed, it was observed that it was more than the forecasted sales (Hall, 2010). When the euro zone sovereign debt crisis hit London the share price of Sainsbury decreased along with many other companies. As reported on 21 may 2012, the stock price of many companies emerged from the crisis but Sainsbury and Tesco were still among the weakest performers (London midday: Stocks rise but Eurozone still in focus, 2012). There are many resources and abilities within an organizations,

Thursday, September 12, 2019

PERSUASIVE WRITING Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

PERSUASIVE WRITING - Essay Example Among such organizations is the one called â€Å"Feed the Children, Inc.†. It was founded in 1979 in Oklahoma City, and today it works all over the world. As it is mentioned on the official website of â€Å"Feed the Children†, the organization â€Å"exists to end child hunger† and has the mission of â€Å"providing hope and resources for those without life essentials† (Feed the Children, Inc., 2014). Overall, the focus of the organization is to deliver food, drugs, clothes and other necessities to children and their families who lack them all over the globe. Every person can lend a helpful hand and support children in need as the organization presents a range of unique opportunities for those who wish to help out, such as sponsoring a child, volunteering, and organizing special projects (â€Å"Feed the Children, Inc., 2014). The first unique way every person can help a kid in need presented by â€Å"Feed the Children† is called â€Å"Sponsor a Child†. The essence of this option is that the organization gives the opportunity for those who want to be engaged in a program to change a life of a particular child. As the website goes, â€Å"for only $30 a month, you can have a powerful impact in one child’s life; you’ll stop her stomach from growling, give her clean water and send her to school† (Feed the Children, Inc., 2014). For children who live in the developing countries, even thirty dollars can be of a great support and can â€Å"help rescue a boy or a girl from the enemies of childhood – hunger, disease and poverty† (Feed the Children, Inc., 2014). This option allows searching and choosing a child one wants to help; by this, one’s support becomes not only more personalized but more controlled as well because a sponsor has an opportunity to commun icate with the kid he/she decides to help through letters, photos and important information as well as regular updates on the child’s health and well-being. In a course of one month,

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Western civ (Greeks Vs, Hebrews) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Western civ (Greeks Vs, Hebrews) - Essay Example Consequently, the Greek system prepared individuals to serve the state while the Hebrew system prepared individuals to serve God. There is little question that religion played an important part in the social lives of both civilizations but dogmatic religious practices are more readily associated with the Hebrew tradition. In similar fashion, the political realities of the day reflected the intrusion of religion into the affairs of the state. The Hebrews believed that God would hold everyone accountable one day so the ruler was expected to be accountable to God alone. In contrast, the Greek system of personal accountability relied on philosophy and on the discretion of fellow men. Hence, the Greek ruler was accountable to his fellow men more than his accountability to any gods. This increased accountability paved for the world’s first democracy in Athens (Blainey). The achievements of various Athenians such as Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Herodotus, Thucydides, Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle among others laid the foundation for the modern Western civilization. The move to democracy strengthened the Greek quest for knowledge. Furthermore, the Greeks had managed to disassociate divinity with exploration of things around them. Even after Athens was subsumed into the larger Greek civilization, the traditions of learning and development continued unabated. The epistemological drive of the Greeks led to developments in science, architecture, law, philosophy, commerce and numerous other fields. A rich scientific tradition can be traced back to the Greeks with names such as Archimedes, Hero of Alexandria, Galen and others appearing in scientific discussions to this day (Thornton). In contrast, the Hebrew tradition kept God intact with learning limitations. God was seen as the center of the universe in the literal sense and ideas upheld by the scripture were unquestionable. The strength of the Hebrew tradition of

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Managing communication, knowledge and information Essay

Managing communication, knowledge and information - Essay Example This paper seeks to establish an understanding of the meaning of communication, information and knowledge management, and show how these three aspects can be improved within an organization, including the integration of Information Technology systems to hasten company’s operations. In details, this paper will look at communication process, internal and external sources of knowledge and how managers can improve the communication process as well as communication skills. In addition, the role played by various stakeholders in ensuring effective communication is explained. Lastly, it also covers how IT systems can be used for collecting, analyzing, storing, disseminating and providing access to knowledge and information. Discussion Communication management Communication is the process of transmitting a message from a sender to a receiver in a comprehensible manner. It can also be the process of sharing thoughts, ideas, and feelings with others while making sure that those thoughts , feelings and ideas are well understood by the people concerned. Communication is all about speaking, listening as well as observing. Effective communication is crucial in the business world and personal life too. Since communication accounts for the difference between success and failure in many businesses and that it is critical to the successful operation of modern organizations, effective communication is an absolute must. Moreover, every person in an organization needs to understand the principals of effective communication. Companies everywhere are working towards the realization of Total Quality Management (TQM) and effective communication, and the manner in which individuals perceive and converse with each other in the workplace is crucial. Poor communication reduces quality, weakens productivity, and later leads to anger as well as lack of trust among stakeholders in an organization, and therefore, communication process is the guide towards the realization of effective com munication. In communication process, the passing of information from the sender to the receiver takes place, and individual who follow the process have the opportunity to become more productive. Communication process within an organization is usually determined by the nature of the organizational structure. Communication process is made up of four key components, which is encoding, the medium of transmission, decoding and feedback. The communication process begins with the sender who can be an individual, group or organization that initiates communication and ends with the receiver. The sender‘s attitude, experience, knowledge, skills experience, perceptions and culture have an influence on the message. Therefore, the sender is usually responsible for the success of the message, and the written words, spoken words and non-verbal language selected are paramount in ensuring the receiver interprets the message intended (Burnett & Dollar 1989). The encoding process is the first s tep in the communication process. A sender must encode, which means translating information into a message that represents ideas and concepts usually in the form of symbols, and it becomes a coded message which will now be communicated. The

Cost, Volume, and Profit Formulas Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Cost, Volume, and Profit Formulas - Essay Example The preferable outcome in most businesses is to sell as many units as possible, thus high volumes are preferable. The selling price is the unitary price of each product. It can be calculated by dividing the total sales by the amount of units sold. If a company had sales of $5,000 and it sold 100 units the unitary price is $50 per unit. There are two types of costs. These two types of costs are variable costs and fixed costs. A variable cost can be defined as a cost of labor, material, or overhead that changes according to the change in the volume of production units (Investorwords, 2011). Variable cost per unit can be calculated dividing total variable costs by the quantity of units sold. The second type of cost is fixed costs. Fixed costs are costs that do not change with the volume of sales. The total amount of fixed costs is the same every month. Some examples of fixed costs include rent, managerial salaries, and depreciation (Moneyterms, 2011). The total fixed expenses component is calculated by adding up all the fixed costs of the company. The sales mix is the relative proportion in which a company’s products are sold (Garrison & Noreen, 2003).

Monday, September 9, 2019

The Land of Opportunity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Land of Opportunity - Essay Example One should keep in mind that increasing employment signals increasing businesses that hire people, hence, more competition.   The firm might also consider expanding its market. For example, if the firm’s product is only meant to appeal to a particular range of age, say, teenagers to young adults, it might want to try producing manufactured goods modified for younger children. Of course, an extensive customer research must follow. Product improvement will occur after determining from the customers answers to questions like â€Å"How can this product improve?† or â€Å"What product that is not available yet will compliment this available product?† And lastly, the firm must acquire all the possible business from its product. If the product that the customer will experience? After this, the company can then proceed to providing branches that will deal with specific issues concerning the product.  has something to do with technology, the firm must pre-meditate wha t will be the problems that the customer will experience? After this, the company can then proceed to providing branches that will deal with specific issues concerning the product.In the Foreign Trade Statistics, a list is presented containing the Top 10 Trading Partners of the U.S.—surplus, deficit and total trade. Countries with which the U.S. has a trade surplus includes: Netherlands, United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong, Australia, Belgium, Singapore, Panama, Bahamas, Honduras and Jamaica. Countries with which the U.S. has a trade deficit are: China, Japan, Canada.... In the Foreign Trade Statistics, a list is presented containing the Top 10 Trading Partners of the U.S.-surplus, deficit and total trade. Countries with which the U.S. has a trade surplus includes: Netherlands, United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong, Australia, Belgium, Singapore, Panama, Bahamas, Honduras and Jamaica. Countries with which the U.S. has a trade deficit are: China, Japan, Canada, Mexico, Federal Republic of Germany, Venezuela, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia and Italy. Lastly, the countries with which the U.S. trades are the following: Canada, Mexico, China, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom, South Korea, Taiwan, France, and Malaysia. Netherlands has a year-to-date surplus of U.S. $ 4,615.92M. China has a year-to-date deficit of U.S. $ 64,354.56M. Canada has a year-to-date total of U.S. $ 178.07B. These are the leading countries in the three categories and their amounts in surplus, deficit and total trade. Apparently, the trade deficit amount exceeds the trade surplus with the countries. In studying these lists, it can also be noticed that several countries appear in more than one category. The countries Canada, China, Japan, Mexico and Federal Republic of Germany consistently appear on the Top 5 of both trading partners and deficit countries, in slightly different order. While Malaysia follows behind as the 10th in the trading partners, and 9th in the deficit countries. This clearly shows how the countries with which the U.S. has a trade deficit (specifically Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, Federal Republic of Germany and Malaysia) are also the same countries that are its top trading partners. Based on the Foreign Trade Statistics

Sunday, September 8, 2019

Public Relations Strategy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Public Relations Strategy - Essay Example However, in order to formulate a successful strategy, it is critical that a proper strategic management process is followed. This process is a step by step process which involves different stages through which organizational strategy has to pass through in order to be effective. Such process involves a detailed situational analysis i.e. the process of taking into account the external as well as internal factors before framing and formulating an strategy. The situational analysis also allows an organization to set its strategic objectives and bases on such objectives; strategies are designed to achieve such strategic objectives. Further, organizations also need to choose the tactics and then subsequently communicating the same to the stakeholders so that the same can easily disseminated to all the relevant stakeholders. "Public Relations is the profitable integration of organization's new and continuing relationships with the stakeholders including customers by managing all communications contacts with the organization that create and protect the brand and reputation of the organization"(Cawood,1997) British Petroleum or BP is one of the oldest companies in this line of business having more than 100 years of experience. Listed on London Stock Exchange, BP was formed during 1909 as Anglo-Persian Oil Company and has successfully transformed itself into one of the highly successful firms in the world. BP claims to be one of the largest energy companies in the world providing efficient fuel for transportation, energy for heating as well as light and offering other retail petrochemical products for use in everyday life. BP has the presence in over 100 countries with more than 90,000 employees working for it in different countries drilling more than 3 million barrels of oil per day. Such huge level of operations is only possible due to the successful management of the firm in strategic manner through diversification of its brands which cater to the needs of the different segments of the market. It is also critical to note that British Government has remained one of the shareholders of the firm during 1950s however; the stakes of UK government were subsequently sold during 1970s in order to give the firm more freedom and creativity to flourish as the third largest energy company in the world. BP is technically engaged into the exploration and production of petroleum and petroleum related products, refining them and subsequently marketing them. Apart from this, the firm is also involved into the production of different chemicals such as engine oils etc. Some Statistics about BP1 As of December 2007, 1. BP had the market capitalization of over GBP 230 Billion. 2. Sales and operating revenue of approximately GBP 284 Billion. 3. Number of total shareholders is in excess of 1 million. 4. Its proven reserves of the gas and oil were approximately over 17 billion barrels out of which 57% of the reserves are oil whereas rest comprises of the natural gas. 5. It produces 2.4 million barrels of oil and 8.1 billion cubic feet of natural gas from its various sites operated at multiple locations across the world. 6.

Saturday, September 7, 2019

Realism, Liberalism and Marxism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Realism, Liberalism and Marxism - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that according to the theory of realism, self interest is the motivating force behind world politics and hence there exists a competition among various stake holders and parties in the global scenario for safeguarding their self interests. In a society based on the principles of realism, moral values, ideological concerns and social considerations have less importance, whereas the national interest and security of the nation is always given the prime importance. Realism presents a materialistic approach to the working of things and considers the material benefits the ultimate target of all kinds of political and social struggles. The theory of realism has given rise to various other theories of international relations, of which power politics is the most widely studied. Power politics derives its basic ideology from realism and extends the safeguarding of interests of the nation to promoting aggression against other nations. According to po litical realism, there are certain rules and laws which govern the political scenario in society and these laws are deeply rooted in the human nature. Therefore the understanding of laws of human nature is imperative for improving the society. Human nature is perhaps the most consistent trait humans have because it’s the same as it was in old civilizations and thus the theory of politics was developed in ancient times. The various aspects of realism are based on ascertainment of facts and their extensive analysis. A foreign policy based on the principles of realism is never ambiguous and is clear in the consequences and future scenario which it tends to create. Therefore the policies based on realism do not serve long term objectives. Realism defines interests in terms of power with no questions of moral qualities and cultural or traditional preferences; realism presents a very realistic picture of the global political scenario in which the nations and states which have power do not care about the morals and values set by other cultures or the international community as a whole, for them power struggle is the deciding factor in all situations. Therefore the nations should learn to protect their interests by becoming powerful or by siding with the ones who have the power because this is the only way of survival in the world. Realism gives very less importance to moral values and traditions because of the belief that actions are judged by their consequences, therefore an actions which is taken to safeguard the moral values is never justified in realism if it puts the national security at risk. Morals cannot be made a part of the realist theory or international relations because ‘moral values’ is an extensively relative term with different interpretations in different societies and cultures therefore religion, moral values, traditions and culture does not and should not have any sort of involvement in the political dealings of a statesman (Str emmel, 2004). The theory of realism traces its history back to ancient Chinese literature and hence it has influenced the global political scenario from the very beginning of human civilization. Sun Tzu, an ancient Chinese scholar in his book the Art of War used realism to defend various war strategies of that time. Greek historian Thucydides is considered as the father of the theory of realism and he for the first time came up with the concept that might is always right and moral and ethical grounds are never considered in war and international politics. Another ancient scholar who based his teachings and writings on the theory of realism is Chanakya, the teacher of the first emperor of united India, Chandragupta Maurya. It is believed that it was the influence of the teachings of Chanakya which motivated Chandragupta to conquer the various parts of subcontinent and form a powerful and united empire in India. The teachings of Chanakya were based on the concept of power politics and he always convinced Chandragupta that the only way of survival in this world is by seizing immense power and maintaining an aggressive stance against

Friday, September 6, 2019

Csr in Foxconn Essay Example for Free

Csr in Foxconn Essay More and more companies are investing in China, to share the incredible profit generate from the 1.4 trillion people. One of the US based company, which its going to invest 35% of its stake, to a fast growing China private-owned timber flooring company. Like most local Chinese company, CSR is not implementing in that company as well as no management working on it. Generally speaking, CSR (Corporate Social Responsibilities) is a form of corporate self-regulation integrates into business model, in which a company monitors and ensures its active compliance with the spirit of law, ethical standard and international norms. Although this timber company has high growth in the market and generate good profit, it may easily pose a risk to investor if they are not pay attention to social and environmental issues. Below summaries would like to analyst the potential impacts may arise from different parties such as employees, consumers, environment, and communities and how they may be affected by the decision. First of all, its no doubt that employee are the basic component of an industry. By taking measures from the Social Accountabilities 8000 (SA8000), they should consider if the company has employed child labor. Child labor is very popular in China and other developing countries like Guatemala especially industry like involving agricultural and manufacturing that need high working force. It may violate the law and damage the company brand easily. Other than legal extend, an interesting figure showed that (, 83% of the employee will leave the job if their employer used child labor. Obvious, child labor nowadays give more harm than good, instead, providing wellness program for employee and their families create certain shared value that they will love more the company in both mentally and physically. Moreover, its also important that the firm should provide adequate safety working environment as well as organize enough safety training. It will certainly reduce the number of accidents occurs. In the early 80s, China had launched Social Security Fund, all companies must follow closely and provide all kinds of insurances to employees in order not to obstruct from the law and political issue. In addition, the company should encourage workers to form union and those who involve wont be discriminated. Because employee more involve in the discussion regarding payroll, community welfare and company development will surely increase their loyalty at all. The investor has to review all the working hours, salary standard and penalty and make sure its fair to everyone. Secondly, the investor should concern to the consumers feedback in which the company has to create customers satisfaction to their products. However, in this competitive world, many companies like to exaggerated the usage and beauty of their products to attract more customers by means of media as a communication platform. For this reason, the investor should review all these products advertisement that might cause harmful effect to the product brand name. Reputation of the timber flooring company takes years to come to the top five in China can be ruined in hours. One accident always cause in flooring industries may be the level of formaldehyde is so high that cause toxic to human. Heath problems always cause fatal to death of company. One of big scandal happened recently nearly killed AJISEN one of the ramen restaurant in which has been accused of making their broths using soup concentrate and cheap flavoring powders, known for a guarantee that all their soups come from a broth of pork bones simmered to perfection.(Patrick Keefe) Stock price of AJISEN drops from HK$17.82 to HK$9.32 (51.7%) within 2 weeks just right after the scandal and never climb back up until now. Indeed, customer are all likely the same, they only purchase goods they fell confidence by faith as choices are not the only one. Above example shows a warning signal that in case the company has listed in the stock market in the future. They have to take care much more than now on the CSR issues as media can spread out news within one day. Thirdly, the company should put more efforts not to interfere the environment. Recently, Chinese government has set up many laws to preserve environmental friendly after enter the WTO, ISO14000 standard is basic management standard that has to follow. Due to their factories including plantation, chemical working for production and raw material importation, there are a lot of chances may encounter to environmental dispute. As an investor, other than make sure correct documentations and license for environmental issue, they also have to study all the process in terms of energy use and logistics. Considering the firm has 50% of timber source globally and 10% of their customers are overseas, excess packaging of products and greenhouse gases are not just costly to the environment but also costly to the business. By reducing its packaging and cutting 100 million miles from the delivery routes of its trucks, Wal-Mart lowered carbon emissions and saved $200 million in cost. (Harvard Business Review). Above example shows typical how mutual benefits if we re-arrange business decision and enhance regulation reforms even just simple as logistic. Besides, China has a lot of tax reduction and funding approaches to achieve government supports by encouraging people to protect the nature. Furthermore, the investor should also pay attention to their suppliers. Not only to check if the imported products are fulfill the regulations but also review the availability and the ease of transportation as 50% outsourcing of the company is not a small figure to ignore. Above all, CSR is not a short term objective, the investor should set up a CSR team in the company for promoting and working for long term prospective. Its clearly that CSR is helping to build up the company brand far more easily than performing marketing and sales on timber flooring only. According to Harvard Business Review, Not all profit is equal. Profit involving a social purpose represent a higher form of capitalism, one that creates a positive cycle of company and community prosperity, its no doubt that customer will purchase more if the timber flooring shows green and if the company anticipate more social welfare activities. To conclude, the investor should immerse CSR into each employee and the community in order to enhance share value to form a mutually beneficial society.

Thursday, September 5, 2019

Definition And Classification Of Humor

Definition And Classification Of Humor Humor is a common phenomenon, which plays an important role in many aspects of our daily lives. Over thousand of years humor has been extensively studied in many fields, such as psychology, physiology and philosophy, anthropology, and sociology. Until recent times, it has been studied within the scope of linguistics. The English term humor derived from the Latin word for liquid, fluid or moisture. As time went by, the word humor lost its original meaning and came to be used in its present sense. As to the definition of humor, no agreement has been reached yet. According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English, it is defined as (1) capacity to cause or feel amusement (2) a persons state of mind. In Longman Dictionary of English Language Culture, it is defined as the ability to understand and enjoy what is funny. Although the definitions are not completely the same, we still can find something in common: Firstly, there should be human participants in the act. The speaker and the hearer play an important role in the humorous utterance. Secondly, the occurrence of humor should refer to the ability of people who are capable of producing and receiving what is funny and laughable. Thirdly, in any case something must happen in a humorous act, which refers to something people have seen, heard or thought. As to the classification of humor, Pocheplsov (Pocheplsov, 1981: 25) divided humor into two kinds. One is situational humor, the other is linguistic humor or verbal humor. Situational humor is situation-oriented, such as Monkeys mimic human beings behavior, and little babies learn to walk. Both of their awkward and vivid postures are situational humor. Verbal humor refers to text-oriented humor, both written and spoken. It is realized by languages. In this paper, verbal humor will be mainly discussed. 2. Humor created by flouting the cooperative principle In the next part, the theories will be briefly introduced and how the humorous effect is achieved will be discussed in details. 2.1 A brief review of cooperative principle In the process of communication, participants must abide by some basic principles, especially cooperative principle to ensure that the conversation goes smoothly well. We know that quite often a speaker can mean a lot more than what is said and the hearer can arrive at the speakers meaning. A philosophy and logician, H. P. Grice believes that there must be some mechanism governing the production and comprehension of these utterances. He suggests there is a set of assumptions guiding the conduct of conversation. This is what he calls the Cooperative Principle (CP). He then formulates the principle and its maxims as follows: Make your conversational contribution as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the exchange in which you are engaged. To put it more specific, there are four maxims under the general principle. The maxim of quantity Make your contribution as informative as required (for the current purpose of the exchange ) Do not make your contribution more informative than is required. The maxim of quality Do not say what you believe to be false. Do not say that for which you lack the adequate evidence. The maxim of relation Be relevant The maxim of manner Avoid obscurity of expression Avoid ambiguity Be belief Be orderly (Grice, 1969: 58, cited in Wen Liu, 2006: 154) Grices CP is, with no doubt, one of the most important pragmatic principles ever existed and also one of the focuses of this thesis. However, not everyone obeys these maxims in the process of communication. Although speakers sometimes may violate these maxims intentionally or unintentionally, they are still cooperative and the communication can be successful. Humor is one of the cases like this .In the pragmatic study of verbal humor, violation or flouting of the four maxims has frequently encountered. In the following parts, I will talk about how humorous effect comes out on flouting of CP maxims in details. 2.2 Humor created by flouting of the maxims 2.2.1 Humor created by flouting of the maxim of quantity On the one hand, when the information is not as informative as is required, the sense of humor can be felt. For example, 1) That is not my dog An old lady was strolling through the park when she saw Jamie with a dog. Does your dog bite? she asked. NO. said Jamie. When the lady tried to pet the dog, it almost bit her finger off. I thought you said your dog does not bite! screamed the old lady with blood dripping from her hand. That is right, answered Jamie, my dog does not bite -but that is not my dog. In this story, Jamie violates the CP in that she does not answer the ladys question without adequate information. But the lady takes it for granted that that is Jamies dog. So when she complains, Jamies smart answer causes this humorous effect. On the other hand, when the information is more informative than is required, the humorous effect can also be felt. A good case in point is the conversation between The Soprano and the Contralto. 2) S: Did you notice how my voice filled the hall last night? C: Yes, dear. In fact I noticed several people leaving to make room for it. This humor lies in the over-loaded information of the Contraltos answer. The Soprano is proud of her voice and she wants to get others affirmation. So she asks the Contralto. In fact the first part of her answer is enough. From the extra part we can deduce the implication that the Soprano sings so badly that some audience can not bear it and start to leave. The contrast between the Sopranos expectation and the results she gets produce humorous effect. It is not hard to imagine how embarrassed and lost she was at that moment. 2.2.2 Humor created by flouting of the maxim of quality We have mentioned that the quality maxim requires the utterance to be true and reliable. The following story will fully explain how the humorous effect will be achieved by flouting the quality maxim. 3) The Barbers Explanation Once a boy went into a barbers shop and he asked for a shave. The barber told him to sit down, soaped his face and then left. The boy waited and waited and at last he lost his patience. Well, he shouted, why are you leaving me here for all the time The barber replied, Im waiting for your beard to grow. In this humorous story, the little boy is probably too eager to become an adult. So he asked for a shave, but the humorous barber did not refuse him directly .Instead, he left the boy waiting there and explained when the boy lost out of his patience. Obviously the barber violate the maxim of quality for it is known to us all that it will be many years before the boy grows beard. His real purpose is that he wants to tell the boy that there is no need for him to shave. His humor exists in disagreement between his utterance and actual objective facts. The following story will produce the same effect. It is about a horse or a mistress. The following is the story. 4) A horse or a mistress A woman came up behind her husband while he was enjoying his coffee and slapped him on the back I found a piece of paper in your pant pocket with the name Marylou written on it , she said ,furiously, you had better have an explanation. Calm down, honey! the man replied, Remember last week I was at the race? That was the name of the horse I bet on The next morning his wife sneaked up and again slapped him, what was that for? he complained. Your horse called last night. In this story the husband explained that Marylou was the name of his horse. Obviously he lied and violated the maxim of quality- Say something you believe to be false. The next morning when he asked why his wife beat him. His wife deliberately violated the maxim of quality and said his horse called last night. From this we can feel the wifes anger and her humor. Another aspect about deliberately flouting the maxim of quality is saying something lacking of evidence. For instance, 5) She: how old do you think I am? He: you dont look your age. In this piece of humor, the mans answer is vivid and humorous in that in western culture age is a taboo for ladies in a conversation. You dont look your age is quite a good answer for however old the lady is, it will not embarrass her. The violation of quality maxim is actually lying. In order to achieve humorous effect, speakers often apply rhetorical devices, such as personification, irony, hyperbole. Hence the hearer infers that the speaker meant something informative instead, for example, 6) Tom has wooden ears, this sentence can be interpreted that Tom do not appreciate classical music so we should not invite him to the concert. 2.2.3 Humor created by flouting of the maxim of manner In Grices cooperative principle, the maxim of manner requires the addresser and addressee to avoid obscurity of expression and ambiguity, be brief and orderly. However in our daily life, it is easy to break one or two, thus producing some unexpected humorous effect. Firstly, humor is created by intentionally saying some obscurity of expressions. 7): Lady (standing in the middle of a busy street): officer, can you tell me how to get to the hospital? Policeman: Just stand where you are and you will find how to get to the hospital. In example 7), the policeman did not answer the ladys question directly but indirectly warned her not to stand in the middle of road. This kind of conversation will make the seemingly boring transportation a little interesting. Secondly, people achieve humorous effect by making use of ambiguity of words. The following dialogue is the oral test to American registered electorate. 8) Where is Washington? He is dead. I mean the capital of the United States. They loaned it all to Europe. Now do you promise to support the constitutor? Me? How can I? I have got a wife and six children to support. In this conversation there are many words easy to be misunderstood for they have multiple meanings. Washington not only refers to one of American cities but also can refer to the first president of United States. Capital also has two meanings, city and money. Support can be used to agree with somebody and it also mean raise somebody. The questioned skillfully make use of polysemy to produce ambiguity. Thus, he can avoid answering the questions directly. It not only vividly reflects his sense of humor but also criticizes American politics. Thirdly, another way of producing humor by violating the manner of maxim is not to be brief. There is an old story which can best illustrate this point. Example 9): There was a man who played the chess for three times continuously. Later when he was asked how it was .He winked his eyes and answered: I did not win in the first time, the second time I did not lose and the third time I wanted to draw, but he disagreed. In actual fact, the man lost three times but he did not want to admit it. So he answered in the way that violates the third rule. However, this clever answer not only save his face but also left a deep impression on people who wanted to know the answer. Last but not the least is that the speaker deliberately says something random, illogical but the hearer can sense the humor by inferring from what he says. There is an example, 10) Her files of pins extend their shining rows; puffs; powders; patches; bibles; trifles; billet-doux. From this sentence the author put pins, make-ups of women and love letters sacred bible together. It is hard not to laugh when you get the pragmatic meaning that the woman was not loyal to God and Christian briefs. 2.2.4 Humor created by flouting of the maxim of relation The relation maxim requires us to speak something relevant. But in a conversation something completely irrelevant to topic maybe underlying something deep unsaid. Sometimes ridiculous words can also achieve humors effect. Example 11): There is a bug in the bottom of my cup! howled a customer in greasy-spoon cafà ©. What does this mean? Listen, mate, growled the owner, if you want your fortune told; go to find you a gipsy. In this example the customer needs a reasonable explanation about the bug, but the owner answer totally different thing irrelevant to his question. It violates the relation principle but achieve humorous effect .another example is listed to illustrate this point. A young man pretended that his eyesight was very poor when examined, so he was not called up for army service. That evening he went to a movie only to find that the doctor who had examined him was sitting beside him. Immediately he said to the man doctor, Excuse me, maam, but doesnt this bus go to Main Street? The young mans question has nothing to do with the context. He deliberately flouts the relation maxim to make the doctor believe that he is indeed short-sighted. In this way he covered his lie but it adds into the whole story a humorous effect. 3. Humor created by flouting the speech act theory 3.1 Theoretic review of speech act theory The speech act theory is one of the important theories in pragmatics; it is initially put forward by the British linguistic philosopher John L. Austin in his lectures at Harvard University in 1955. It is a philosophical explanation of the nature of linguistic communication. It aims to answer the question What do we do when using language? According to Austin, a speaker might be performing three acts simultaneously when speaking: locutionary act, illocutionary act and perlocutionary act. Locutionary act: the act of saying the literal meaning of the utterance. Illocutionary act: the extra meaning of the utterance produced on the basis of its literal meaning Perlocutionary act: the effect of the utterance on the hearer, depending on the specific circumstance (Liu Wen, 2006: 149). 3.2 Humor created by misunderstanding illocutionary act Example 12): Teacher: what is the shape of the earth? Jonny: it is round. Teacher: How do you know it is round? Jonny: All right, its square then. I dont want to start an argument about it. From the teachers question, How do you know it is round? We can infer the teacher didnt blame the students answer, but wanted the student to tell him the evidence or causes for his answer. However, the student thought the teacher suggested him that the answer was wrong, so he changed his answer. Example 13): Waitress, shouted the impatient diner, do I have to sit here and starve all night? No, sir, we close at nine oclock. It is obvious that the customer is dissatisfied with the restaurants slow service, and he expressed his complaint. But the cute waitress deliberately understood the complaint on the locutionary act, and she hinted the customer she wont make him stay too long for his business hour was not all-day round. In the above two examples, humor is produced by misunderstanding illocutionary act. 3.3 Humor created by understanding illocutionary act In the following example, the seeming unconnected conversation between husband and wife is very coherent on a speech-act level on the condition that both of them understand the illocutionary act. 14) a. Husband: Thats the phone. b. Wife: Im in the bathroom c. Husband: Ok. This is an exchange between husband and wife when the telephone rings. In (a) The husband is not describing something it is a thing that needs no description to his wife .In (b), the wife is not describing her action either people do not usually need to assert that they are in the bathroom. Its illocutionary act are a refusal to comply with the request and issuing a request to her husband to answer the phone instead .In (c) the man accepts his wifes refusal and accepts her request, meaning all right, I will answer it In this piece, the humor lies in getting implied meaning from the seeming unconnected conversation. They both can understand each other without saying something directly. 4. Presupposition and humor Presupposition can be defined in linguistics as any kind of background assumption against which an expression or utterance makes sense or is rational. Presuppositions refer to the conditions that must be met in order for the intended meaning of a sentence to be regarded as acceptable (Yang, 2008: 177). Presupposition can be divided into semantic presupposition and pragmatic presupposition. Semantic presupposition can be easily figured out with presupposition triggers. However, pragmatic presupposition is the presupposition of the speaker or those directly involved. It concerns not only knowledge (whether true or false), but also concerns expectations, desires, interests, claims, attitudes towards the world, fears etc. The presupposition in linguistic is affected by some factor or the context. Pragmatic presupposition is the background knowledge of the two parties of communication, and the mutual knowledge is an important factor involving the construction of context. When the mutual knowledge is negated, the presupposition of the previous utterance is cancelled. In some situations, the speaker may deliberately make use of the defeasibility of presupposition to create humorous effect. The following examples are good cases in point. Example 15): If youre going to work here, young man, said the boss, one thing you must learn is that we are very keen on cleanliness in this firm. Did you wipe your feet on the mat as you came in? Oh, yes, sir. And another thing was we are very keen on is truthfulness. There is no mat. In this story, when the boss asked the young if he wiped his feet on the mat when he came in, the presupposition is that there is a mat on the floor. For this question, not only the young man, anyone would think that there is a mat on the floor. In fact, the boss set a trap to the candidate through a false presupposition to test whether the candidate is honest. 16) How often do you cheat in your exam? if you are asked by your teacher, how will you answer ¼Ã… ¸ There is a presupposition that you do, in fact, cheat in examinations. If you simply answer the how often part of the question by saying the words like very seldom, you are behaving as if the presupposition is right, that is, you admit that you have cheated in the exams. In this way we can touch the humorous effect of English. Presupposition is a precondition of an utterance and the implicit information it contains plays a role in normal progression of conversation. Ignoring the presupposition of an utterance, making a false presupposition and contradicting the presupposition to an utterance cause the abnormal comprehension to an utterance between the speaker and the hearer. In this way the effect of humor is produced. It is interesting and important to note that while conversation participants nearly always observe the CP, they do not observe these maxims strictly. Sometimes in order to achieve humorous effect, they will deliberately flout one or two of these maxims. The so-called sense of humor is the ability to produce or appreciate humor. The violation of one or two of these maxims is one of the main reasons to create humor. So many examples have been used to illustrate that violating this maxim could produce humor. But how can we sense it? Another pragmatic principle comes up-Conversation implicature. 5. Conversational implicature and humor Grices basic idea is that in communication, speaker aims to follow the CP and its maxims, and that hearers interpret utterances with these maxims in mind. According to Grice, utterance interpretation is not a matter of decoding messages, but rather involves taking the meaning of the sentences together with contextual information, using inferences rules, and working out what the speaker means on the basis of the assumption that the utterance conforms to the maxims. The kind of meaning that is not literally contained in the utterance is called conversational implicature. Conversational implicature is the key notion to appreciate English humors. In other words, appreciating English humor is no more than getting the implied meaning from the utterance. How can we get the implied meaning and what knowledge do we need? The correct inference of the conversational implicature presupposes the hearers mastery of the following knowledge: (1) the conventional content of the utterance (2) the cooperative principle and its maxims (3) the content of the context (4) some background knowledge shared by the speaker and the hearer. The speaker can produce the implicature in two ways: observance and non-observance of the maxims. In actual speech communication, it is often the case that speaker do not or can not observe the CP and the maxims. For example, the sentence he is a tiger literally is false, openly against the maxim of quality, for no human is a tiger. But the hearer still assumes that the speaker is being cooperative and then infers that he is trying to say something distinct from the literal meaning. He can work out that probably the speaker means to say that he has some characteristics of a tiger. Thus humorous effect can be sensed by such kind of expression. Metaphor and irony are standard examples of the flouting of the maxim of quality. However, the least interesting case is when speaker directly observe the maxims so as to generate conversational implicature. 15) Husband :where are the car keys ¼Ã… ¸ Wife: Theyre on the table in the hall. The wife has answered clearly(manner)and truthfully(quality),and has given just the right information(quantity)and has directly addressed her husbands goal in asking the question(relation).She has said precisely what she meant, no more and no less, and has generated her conversational implicature. From the above examples we can see clearly that this pattern of conversation of inference can work only on the assumption that the interlocutors share some background knowledge mentioned above. 6. The politeness principle and English humor The cooperative principle alone cannot fully explain how people talk. It explains how conversational implicature or English humor gives rise to but it does not tell us why people do not say directly what they mean. Why, for instance, do people say Could you give me a lift? instead of Give me a lift? The reason has to do with another principle which applies to conversation in addition to the Cooperative Principle Polite Principle (PP). In most cases, the indirectness is motivated by consideration of politeness. Politeness is usually regarded by most pragmatists as a means of strategy which is used by a speaker to achieve various purposes, such as saving face, establishing and maintaining harmonious social relations in conversation. Leech (leech, 1983: 165) looks on politeness as crucial in accounting for why people are often so indirect in conveying what they mean. He thus puts forward the Politeness Principle so as to rescue the Cooperative Principle in the sense that politeness can satisfactorily explain exceptions to and apparent deviation from the CP. Following Grices presentation of the CP, leech puts forward six maxims of the polite Principle which run as follows: Maxim of tact Minimize the cost to the other Maximize the benefit to the other Maxim of generosity Minimize benefit to self Maximize cost to self Maxim of approbation Minimize dispraise of the other Maximize praise of the other Maxim of modesty Minimize praise of self Maximize dispraise of self Maxim of disagreement Minimize disagreement between self and the other Maximize agreement between self and the other Maxim of sympathy Minimize antipathy between self and the other Maximize sympathy between self and the other (Wen Liu, 2006: 254) Briefly, this principle requires speakers to minimize the expression of impolite beliefs, give credit to the other person in its positive aspect and not cause offense to the other person in its negative aspect. 6.1 Humor created by abiding the politeness principle It has been mentioned that interlocutors should observe the maxims of Cooperative Principle in order to keep the communication go smoothly. However, in some situation interlocutors would rather sacrifice the Cooperative Principle than appear impolite. Interestingly, sometimes interlocutors abide by the Politeness will also create humorous effect. The following is such a case. The story happened when Regan held the post of the American President. During his first official visit to Canada, the demonstrators against the USA interrupted his public speeches off and on. The Canadian Premier Pierre appeared quite embarrassed. Then, Regan with a smile said to Pierre, Such a demonstration happens quite often in America. I guess these people must be coming from America o purpose to your honorable country. They just want to make me feel at home. (Xie, 2004: 125) Regans humorous speech immediately made Pierre joyful. When he saw the Premier felt tough to deal with the situation, President Regan applied the generosity maxim and the sympathy maxim in due course. His humor relieved Pierre from the embarrassment and at the same time saved his own positive face. Humor aroused by abiding by the Politeness Principle. The other maxims are also very important in explaining why certain forms are more acceptable than others. The maxim of approbation will explain why a compliment like what a marvelous meal you cooked! is highly valued while what an awful meal you cooked is not socially accepted .Thus when criticism is evitable; understatement is preferred as a show of reluctance to dispraise. (Her composition was not as good as it might have been.) The maxim of modesty accounts for the benign nature of utterance like how stupid of me and the offensive nature of how clever of me. A: The book is well written. B: Yes, well written as a whole, but there are some rather boring patches, dont you think. Regulated by the maxim of agreement, people tend to exaggerate their common ground first, even when much difference is to follow. In the following example, notice how much effort speaker B puts into trying to hide the fact that he disagrees with A. A: She is small, isnt she? B: Well, shes sort of smallà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦certainly not very large à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦but actuallyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦I would have to say that she is large rather than small. Bs answer is better than answer directly. 6.2 Humor created by violating the politeness principle For some special communicative purposes, the interlocutors may violate the maxims of Politeness Principle. Teacher (to a boy slow at mathematics): You should be ashamed of yourself? Why at your age George Washington was a surveyor! Boy: Yes, sir, and at your age he was President of the United States. According to the maxim of Politeness Principle, we can see the teacher firstly violated the maxim to approbation .Faced with the dispraise, the boy struck back the teachers dispraise, and he also violated the maxims of approbation .However, in this example, the student saved his own face by violating the maxim of politeness principle. It is argued that when the CP and PP are in contradiction, it is generally the CP maxims that get sacrificed. When the truth cannot be told for politeness sake, a white lie may be offered. In fact the PP is so powerful that people are often encouraged to violate its maxims in order to ensure a cooperative discourse .Irony is a means to solve the conflict between the CP and PP-when the truth is too offensive to be told, an ironic utterance assumes a polite surface while delivering an unpleasant true message underneath. Conclusion Just as Chinese scholar Lin Yutang puts it, humor is part of life. As a phenomenon peculiar to human beings, it can be found everywhere. The study of humor can help us better understand humor. This paper studies the general knowledge of humor and how it is caused. Conducting a pragmatic approach to the understanding of verbal humor makes it clear why humor is humorous and how to understand and create verbal humor effectively and efficiently. Through the employing of pragmatic theories to analyze the creation of humor, it can be found that the Cooperative Principle has strong explaining force to the analysis of verbal humor. According to Grice, conversational implicatures can arise from either strictly and directly observing or deliberately and openly flouting the maxims, that is, speaker can produce implicatures in two ways: observance and non-observance of the maxims. According to Leech, the politeness principle is not just an addition to Grices CP, but a necessary complement needed for cases where the CP fails to offer a reasonable explanation. Besides, the speech act theory also plays an important role in appreciating English humor. Through the illocutionary act, extra meaning of the utterance can be produced on the basis of its literal meaning. Presupposition is also an important fact in understanding humor and not getting cheated by others. From the perspective of its function, humor can be used to activate atmosphere, get rid of conflict, attack and counter-attack, and save ones faces. In our daily life, people create humor not only for humors sake, but also for some special communicative purposes. Through the study, people can find the power and charm of humor. If more and more people can be encouraged to use humor in their daily life, the whole society will be more friendly and harmonious.