Saturday, August 31, 2019
Willy and Nora: Tragic Heroes or Home-wreckers? No one has a perfect life. Despite what Aaron Spelling and his friends in the media might project to society today, no oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life is perfect. Everyone has conflicts that they must face sooner or later. The ways in which people deal with these conflicts can be just as varied as the people themselves. Some procrastinate and ignore their problems as long as they can, while others attack problems to get them out of the way as soon as possible. The Lowman and Helmer families have a number of problems that they deal with in different ways, which proves their similarities and differences. Both Willy Loman, the protagonist of Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s Death of a Salesman and Nora Helmer, protagonist of Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House experience an epiphany where they realize that they were not the person the thought they were: while WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s catharsis brings about his death, NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s brings her to a new life; hers. Bo th characterÃ¢â¬â¢s flaws bring about their departure from their respective families as well. They are both overly concerned with the appearances they and their families present to society: as a result they both project false images to others. From their appearance, both seem to be involved in stable marriages and appear to be going places. WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s job as a traveling salesman seems stable (although we never know what it is he sells) when he tells his family that he Ã¢â¬Å"knocked Ã¢â¬â¢em cold in Providence, slaughtered Ã¢â¬â¢em in BostonÃ¢â¬ (Miller 1228). It is not until WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, Linda tells us that he Ã¢â¬Å"drives 700 miles and when he gets there, no one knows him any more, no one welcomes himÃ¢â¬ (Miller 1241). If thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not enough to convince readers of his failure on the job, the fact that he gets fired after working for the same company for 36 years cements his incompetency in the business world to readers. While Nora does not work in the business world, (few woman, if any did over 120 years ago) her failure to take care of her responsibilities becomes quite evident as well. See more: citing an essay When the play opens and Nora enters with a Christmas tree and presents for the children, she gives off the impression of a good mother trying hard to prepare a great Christmas for her family. Upon further analysis we see that NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s duties, in general, are restricted to caring for the children, doing housework, and working on her needlepoint. Nora cannot complete these duties even with the full-time help of Anne Marie, a housekeeper who cleans up after Nora just as much as the children. When Nora and Kristine are having a discussion towardsÃ the start of the play, Nora informs her friend that, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m so happy and relieved [with my marriage]. I must say its lovely to have plenty of money and not have to worry. IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t it?Ã¢â¬ (Ibsen 1119). The rosy picture she painted of her family and marriage are in stark contrast to the Ã¢â¬Å"stranger of a manÃ¢â¬ (Ibsen 1168) she refers to her husband as. We realize that she had not been living her life at all; rath er the life that her husband wanted her to live. While both Willy and Nora succeed in giving of the appearance of being competent, efficient and helpful family members who contribute to the well being of their respective families, they prove otherwise as the plays progress. While the two plays take place nearly 100 years apart, are set on different continents and each have completely different family members, both engage in lies and deceit that hurt their families; after which each protagonist leaves their family. Not only does Willy lie about his performance on the job, he lies about his Ã¢â¬Å"faulty carÃ¢â¬ as well. He tells his family that the Studebaker keeps malfunctioning when in reality we find out through Linda that he has been deliberately trying to kill himself. The biggest way in which Loman deceives his family is by cheating on his wife while away for work in Boston. When his eldest son discovers his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s unfaithfulness, he loses all trust for his father, and BiffÃ¢â¬â¢s life pretty much goes downhill from there. Willy LomanÃ¢â¬â¢s lies, deceit, unfaithfulness have resulted in huge problems for his family. Nora also starts trouble in her household through lies and deceit. NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s crime of forgery is not even a crime in her mind; she does not realize that the law does not take into account peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s motivations behind their actions. While she knows that Krogstad has been associated with shady law practices, she does not realize that his crime was on the same level, if not less illegal than the one that she has committed. When Tourvald opens the letter and finds out about her crime, he goes ballistic, and cannot believe that his own wife could be capable of such a crime. This is ultimately the reason / situation that helps Nora realize that she must leave her family in order to begin to live her own life. But Nora even lies about the little things in life such as the eating of macaroons (Ibsen 1126). Her husband forbade her from eating them on account that they will rot her teeth, and when she is seen eating them in her house, she says that they are a gift from Kristine, which is a lie. Both Willy and NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s lies and deceitfulness frustrate their families to theÃ point where each protagonist much leave their family; although WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s departure is his death, NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s is the start of her real life. Both main characters also use an escape mechanism to leave reality when they realize that their lives are on the wrong path. When Loman starts to realize that his pride and joy in life, Bi ff, Ã¢â¬Å"is a lazy bumÃ¢â¬ (Miller 1218) he begins to talk to himself (Miller 1221). These mental lapses bring Loman to a happier place and time, when his kids were young and innocent and he thought that the best part of his life lay still ahead. This acts almost as a defense mechanism against the pains of reality for Willy. In the final scene, after Biff tells his father that he is Ã¢â¬Å"a dime a dozenÃ¢â¬ and that the Loman name really doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean much, Willy engages in the ultimate escape mechanism; suicide. Although it may appear on the surface to be a selfish and coldhearted move to spite his family, he actually did it so that his family may live a better life with money he thinks they will receive from his life insurance policy. When faced with the harsh pains of reality, Nora also uses defense / escape mechanisms to ignore the problems at hand first, then to conquer them in the end. She believes that she has done nothing wrong, and that if what she has done is illegal, that her good intentions will nullify the illegality of her forgery. When Krogstad informs her otherwise, tells her the possible repercussions of her act, and ultimately gives her an ultimatum, this is her first touch of reality outside of the dollÃ¢â¬â¢s house that she lives in. To cope with the harshness outside of t his dollÃ¢â¬â¢s house, she immediately retreats back inside and attempts to distract herself with Christmas decorations (Ibsen 1133). She uses the tree and presents to distract her from her problems, and tells the nursemaid Anne Marie that sheÃ¢â¬â¢s too busy to play with her kids who want to see her because she must try to distance her mind from the subject at hand. Here she is only making the problem worse by not dealing with it. When she finally realizes that her Ã¢â¬Å"main duty [is] to [her]selfÃ¢â¬ (Ibsen 1166), and that she has been living life according to what her father and husband have wanted rather than what she has wanted, NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s epiphany is complete. She knows that the only possible solution that can work for her is to leave right away. Willy and Nora both escape their problems first by drifting away with mental distractions, then when they fully realize their problems, they both must physically leave their families. For Willy this means death, for Nora, theÃ start of (a new) life. Willy and Nora share a fatal flaw: they try to make others happy before making themselves happy. All that Willy ever wanted in life was to be Ã¢â¬Å"well-likedÃ¢â¬ and for his sons to follow in his footsteps. Their lives focused too much on fulfilling others rather than themselves, and in the end this flaw led to their departure from each of their respective families. When Charley asks Willie Ã¢â¬Å"when the hell are you ever going to grow up?Ã¢â¬ and Biff declares that Ã¢â¬Å"we never told the truth in this house for 10 minutesÃ¢â¬ (Miller 1280) we realize that Willy will never grow up and that he must leave his family because he will never grow up and that nearly his whole life has been a farce. Similarly, when Nora tells her husband that the only way he (and her) can only change if Tourvald has Ã¢â¬Å"his doll taken awayÃ¢â¬ (Ibsen 1168) we realize that NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s life too has been a farce and that she must leave in order to begin her own life.
INTRODUCTION (kfc ) Micro environment factors which the organisation controls . eg employees product ,price ,place and promotion, it can be considered to be the local environment where business operates and owners are aware of the impacts that they are faced with. Macro environment factors are the ones which the organisation does not control and may affect the business . eg political , economic, social, legal and technological factors. the environment are always changing so the companies must always adapt. Market environtment the act outside marketing management ability to build and maintain a succefull relationship with customers ,the environment always change and both customers and marketers wonder what the future will bring MAIN BODY THE EXTERNAL FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE ORGANISATION MICRO ENVIRONMENT EXTERNAL FACTORS CUSTOMERS All businesses need customers ,they should be well balanced around customers .The company`s marketing plan should aim to attract customers through products that meets their needs and wants and good customers service EMPLOYEE Employing staff with good skills and experience is essential. Employees bring an influence on your business via ongoing training and promotion opportunities ,this process begins at recruitment stage .Training and development play a critical role in achieving a competitive edge MEDIA Media can be printed ,televised or inline ,positive media can make the organisation or its product and negative media can break the organisation . an organisation needs to manage the media so that the media can help promote positive things about them and reduce negative event on their reputation. SUPPLIER Supplier provides the business with the goods they need to carry out their business activities. A suppliers behaviour will impact the business it suppliers If a supplier provides poor service this could increase timescales and product quality,and increase in raw material THE FACTORS INFLUENCING THE COMPETITIVE POSITION OF THE ORGANISATION MACRO ENVIRONMENT FACTORS POLITIC This deals with the government policies and procedures which is worked out through legislation and consist of all legal factors such as Governmemt view on culture and religion. Taxation policy on tax rates and incentives. Political factor cans can create advantages and opportunities for organisation. ECONOMIC KFC organisation is affected with national and global economic factors like cost of labour, interest and inflation rates ,economic growth rates business cycle rates and unemployment rates. due to recession the income of the kfc has dropped down and most of the employees were jobless and the rest employees were employees few hours also the company had to cut down their costs SOCIAL It is the cultural and demographic aspects of the external macro environment. the pontential of the employees who come from different back grounds and work together in the kfc , and customer trends and aspects which the kfc has to consider as per their needs and wants of the customer such as changes in lifestyles and change in customers needs and wants. TECHNOLOGY This is driven internationally which reduce s the minimum of production levels and some of the technological factors are recent technological developments. Communication technology has now become the most important aspect in kfc as when the customers are mostly delighted and satisfied with the service including the latest technology that is available in the Kfc.Ã the latest technological method that are used to serve customers faster are such as digital screens ,wireless head phone for the staff cooking utensils. LEGAL The kfc has to maintain rule and regulations related to the hygiene factors such as employee training regarding the food and safety, personal hygiene ,Clean work environment and proper use of the utensils .this also deals with the legal environment in which the company operates. ASPECTS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING Strength ,Weaknesses. Opportunities and threats .Managers will have to start analyzing the internal environment by looking into ineffciencies inside the organisation and will also look outside to the external environment and things taking place independent of the organisation. environmental scans allow managers to use the knowledge gained during the scanning process to decide what strategic steps the organisation needs to take to create a competitive advantage. CONCLUTION Training and development ,managers help with day to day running of the organisation.the must be responsible in creating an energetic and valuable work environment and customer service .Ensuraing quality products and cleanliness is delivered to all customers at good speed and with a smile . QUESTION 2 2.1 READ THE CASE study one from chapter three of your prescribed textbook 2.1.1 Answer question 1to 3 from the case study 1. Do you think there is a business opportunity for a cigar bar in Mamelodi ? There is no business opportunity in Mamelodi because there are three cigar bars in opened and the target market is so young. 2. Is the window of opportunity still open for cigar bars ? Window of opportunities is not opened ,because already they have three cigar Bars which their their target market is young. 3. How must Sanyana go about exploiting this opportunity to get started ? Sanyana must go to an area that is has no cigar bars and busy market 2.2 You have been appointed as a functional manager .You are in charge of marketing department .You need to revise the current marketing strategy. Answer the following questions in light of your new appointment and job task: How can you apply planning, organising , leading and control to manage this department? Managing a department is skill that requires good planning and development and enables the manager to devise strategies, make decisions and implement action. Planning is the process of determining in advance what cost regardless of whether it is a long term priorities. Selecting, Motivating, training and appraising staff. Establishing Strustures and systems through which activities are arranged. Making decisions embodying decisions in instructions an serving as the leader of the department interrelating the various parts of the work . What skills you need to use and develop in order to manage this department? People skill Ã¢â¬â people tend to work with those whom they like or find pleasant to be around ,or atleast have good personalities when dealing with clients. . Technological skill Ã¢â¬â In the world that we are living in marketing professionals must have the technological skills to take advantage of these mediums .Marketing through social networking allows the communication of media campaigns and marketing promotions in realtimeto consumers . Project management skill Ã¢â¬â Marketing must display the skill set to conduct agile project management where marketing campaigns take advantage of the micro opportunities. . Marketing Research skill Ã¢â¬â This can help determine how previous products in the market have been presented to consumers and how a new productcan best be attack the market . Is decision making essential for future planning ?explain why Decision needÃ to made wisely under modifying circumstances with different amount of knowledge about alternatives and consequences.Ã In extention the decision making is often a group process. Consequently the manager must apply principles of democratic decision making since those involved in the decision making process will feel an interest in the result of the process. You need to evaluate employees in the department. how can Ã¢â¬Å"controlÃ¢â¬ assist you with performance appraisal Employees are going to be appraised on all areas that they are responsible for by means of scoring system on how they are doing with their present duties fair , good or very good .that appraisal can be a great tool to monitor and control performance on their duties.
Friday, August 30, 2019
A Small Plea to Delete a Ubiquitous Expletive Response In this essay, Elizabeth Austin describes her feelings about the Ã¢â¬Å"FÃ¢â¬ word. She gives a detailed explanation on why it should not be used in the colloquial language. Austin first gives background knowledge about the Ã¢â¬Å"FÃ¢â¬ word and how it came to be as the word it is used now. AustinÃ¢â¬â¢s thesis is that the Ã¢â¬Å"FÃ¢â¬ word should not be used in any certain way. Austin first states that the word should be deleted from our use, but before that we must remove the people who use the word. Ã¢â¬Å"LetÃ¢â¬â¢s get rid of it.Scholars of social norms say all thatÃ¢â¬â¢s necessary to remove offensive language from public speech is a critical mass of people willing to take up cudgels against it. Ã¢â¬ (Austin 6). There are tons of people who use the word and are not willing to get rid of it because they are so used to it. It is one of their words for colloquial language. Austin then describes how women went through different kind of words that described them. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"Produce and animals is what we were,Ã¢â¬ she recalls. Ã¢â¬Å"We were Ã¢â¬ËchicksÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËlambsÃ¢â¬â¢ and birdsÃ¢â¬â¢ and bitches,Ã¢â¬â¢ and there was always the infamous Ã¢â¬ËcherryÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ (Austin 6).She relates this to women because women were able to change the social norm of being called different things. Austin shows that since women can change the social norm, then society can get rid of the Ã¢â¬Å"FÃ¢â¬ word. Austin continues with the ways we can get rid of the language. Ã¢â¬Å"Police should start ticketing drivers who use the Ã¢â¬Å"FÃ¢â¬ word (or the correlating hand gesture)Ã¢â¬ ¦The Motion Picture Association of America movie rating system should be overhauled to give an automatic NC-17 rating to any film that uses the Ã¢â¬Å"FÃ¢â¬ word even once. (Austin 8-9). Instead of just spreading the word, Austin thinks that we should take it into action. Actions are bigger than words. In the end, Austin concludes that we should reconsider using the word at all. Ã¢â¬Å"You can still use it as a punch line, if you like. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll just risk the freezing silence and icy glares now reserved for white people who use the Ã¢â¬Å"NÃ¢â¬ word in public. Ã¢â¬ (Austin 12). The reason why she says this is to make the readers feel warned or cautious about using it because it offends others around you.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Experiment 5 - Lab Report Example The solar cells are not only cheap, but they are also safe for the environmental use because they do not result in pollution. In electrolyzing water using solar energy, dye-sensitized photovoltaic cells are used. The sensitizer absorbs light that excites the chromophore leading to the production of electrons that undergo a series of processes within the cell to produce electric current for electrolyzing water. It is hypothesized that dyes or quantum dots can be used to sensitize the semiconductor oxide films of a solar cell to generate electricity (Gratzel 6841). Thus, this experiment aims to construct a dye-sensitized solar cell and to measure its current and voltage as well as using the cell to convert light into electricity for electrolysis of water. The materials required for this experiment included a multimeter for measuring resistance, a candle flame for producing carbon powder, and a piece of wire for connecting glass layers. Two pieces of glass and a piece of tissue paper are also required. The chemicals included ethanol for removing dirt on the surfaces of the glass, anthocyanin dye, titanium dioxide paste, potassium triiodide (KI3) electrolyte. In addition, a lab coat, goggles, and tongs were required for safety reasons. We assembled the cell in the first lab session and determined the current and voltage. During this process, we identified the conducting side of a tin-oxide piece of glass by a multimeter and wiped off the surface with an ethanol-moistened tissue to remove dirt. We then added a small amount of titanium dioxide paste and heated the glass on a hot plate in a hood for 20 minutes until it turned green. On cooling to room temperature, we introduced anthocyanin dye. We coated the second piece of tin oxide glass with carbon powder by passing it through a candle flame. After which, we assembled the two glasses by putting the coated sides together
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Home Visit With Sallie Mae - Essay Example Lack of enough oxygen is the main cause of a clouded mind hence the need for the administration of oxygen (Grand Canyon University, 2013). The visiting nurse approached Sallie well, made her feel appreciated and went ahead to assure her that her condition is manageable. To show her concern for what Sallie was going through, the nurse requested her to talk about her late husband. In the medical profession, sharing a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s personal problem is important in creating a patient-physician relationship. Like in SallieÃ¢â¬â¢s case where loneliness is one of the stumbling blocks to her recovery, the talk gave her an opportunity to discuss her problems. Efferox was administered at bedtime to treat depression (Grand Canyon University, 2013). The strength of the prescribed drug is an indication that the Sallie was under too much psychological trauma probably because of her medical condition and loneliness To help alleviate the symptoms of congestive heart failure, Sallie was advised to take multivitamins and potassium supplements because she could not provide the body with sufficient quantity of vitamins because of poor appetite. Her poor appetite is also as a result of loneliness because she feels like she has nothing to live for. To relieve her chest pains and headache, she was advised to take ibuprofen and darvocet. Digoxin was administered to help her fight heart failure and rhythm problems. Zocar was prescribed to enhance weight loss and help in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (National heart lung and blood institute, 2011). For hypertension, Lasix was prescribed to treat her blood pressure problem and help her system get things back on track. Minipress Was given to treat high blood pressure and enhance the relaxation of the muscles around the urethra. Vasotec was administered together with other drugs to help in lowering of sallies blood
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Leadership - Research Paper Example Personal principles and skills acquired in development by a leader will determine the ability to show others the way. In most public sector administrations, the leaders take control of what the junior workers do in their jobs or even what the customers want. Some of them are full of corruption in making vial decisions (To Kill a Mocking Bird 01:41:03). Most of the leaders in this sector also consider their directive to be the best and employee should not in any way do the job in another way. Such practices have made junior employees to lose touch with the management hindering collaborative work design. There is always a barrier between management and junior employees in the workplaces. In addition, most of those finding themselves in the public areas are not motivated in doing their work. Most do the work because of the salary and economic security. This kind of practice cannot allow most of the employees in the public sector to become productive. It also affects the relationship between employees of different units and ranks. As Howard places it, a relationship in the work place is better than the profit. The public servants should also consider serving their customers betternot only by valuing the returns they get. In solution for these cultures in the public administration system, several leadership changes have to take place in the work place. Most of the changes might involve deviation from the current practices like the way Howard Behar changed the management of Starbucks. To change these practices top leaders in the public administration system should take initiative in leading as an example. Developing these leadership skills might seem easy but practicing them proves to be hard for most of the leaders. Working at the middle level management in a public service comes with many challenges. In reality,one person may give orders to some
Monday, August 26, 2019
Discuss the diagnostic value of CT and MR imaging in the diagnosis of hepatocellular - Essay Example The environmental factors are also found to have a greater influence on HCC. The higher level of consumption of alcohol also causes HCC. (Carr 2009). The recent advances in the tissue specific image analysis have made the diagnosis of the diseases at the inner organs very easy with high sensitivity. MRI and CT are the two techniques that use the image analysis. HCC is a very chronic liver disease with several levels. Hence the diagnostic of each level is very essential for the complete treatment and also for resection of the part. (Kamel and Bluemke 2002). Any destruction to the liver parenchyma, biliary ducts and vascular structures must be analyzed properly to study the liver dysfunction. HCC can occur as an infectious or inflammatory disease resulting in storage and metabolic disorders and sometimes may lead to vascular diseases or neoplastic disease. Diagnosis of HCC: When a person is suspected with HCC, the ultra sound diagnosis is done first and if the case is found to be much severe then contrast medium Ã¢â¬â enhanced helical computed tomography (CT) along with dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is used. Combination of CT and MR is found to give accurate non-invasive screening modalities. At the time of diagnosis, the tumor may be small or large. The infection level may be small or chronic. The diagnosis must be able to provide complete information regarding the condition of the tumor and the level of treating it. For this we require a proper diagnostic technique. The studies have found that MRI or CT can provide better diagnostic results. But it was also found that MRI can predict results only to certain limit and so do CT. So a further analysis of these techniques will provide a good idea of what to use and when to use. As HCC are hyper vascular disease, contrast agent is used for the diagnosis. There are four phases in the liver CT scanning. They are pre contrast, arterial phase, portal venous phase and delayed phase. The CT scan is performed for these phases based on the disease condition whether it is hyper vascular or hypo vascular. In CT scan, the pre contrast phase imaging helps us to detect the calcifications in the liver and they are also able to demonstrate the hyper vascular lesions present hypo attenuating to the parenchyma liver cells. (Hayashida et al. 2007). The arterial phase imaging is done after 30 seconds from the injection of contrast phase. The arterial phase scanning is used to demonstrate the hyper vascular lesions that are present in the liver by the enhancement of the liver. This arterial phase imaging helps the doctors to decide whether to go for operation of the tumor or treat it with medicines. This imaging is done as a 3D imaging and thus is of more useful in diagnosis. The portal venous phase is done after 70-90 seconds of injecting the contrast medium and they help to evaluate the hypovascular lesions in the body. (Kamel and Bluemke 2002). The last phase is the delayed phase where the lesions are characterized further after 5 Ã¢â¬â 10 minutes of injection. The HCC can be seen as hypodense lesions as the contrast pahse is washed out completely. Pathologic changes in the hepatic cirrhosis: Cirrhosis occurs due to the hepatic injury and results in the fibrosis diffusion. The nodules are regenerated from the liver cell necrosis and
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Analysis of the Benchmark for External Auditors - Assignment Example Without exception, all external auditors should not allow their independence to be affected by his or her own interests. For, Auditing Standards mandate that external auditors must accept an audit engagement if they feel that their self-interests affect their independence. Independence means not only independence in fact but also go hand in hand with independence through appearance. The Auditing Standards on independence rule states that the auditor must not have any material self-interest in the clients. An auditor has self-interest if the auditor, the auditor's spouse, and children own a share of stock or two in the audit client. The Companies Act of 1948 is the legal framework for external auditors to follow in terms of independence (Power 1997, 17). Clearly, many auditors will not allow their independence to be affected by self -interests. Likewise, it is mandatory that all external auditors will not allow their independence to be affected by self - review. The auditor is required under all audit situations to consider if self -review will affect his independence. The auditor must not continue with the auditor sign as an external auditor if he or she believes that self-review will infringe on the auditor's independence. Clearly, it is mandatory that all external auditors will not allow their independence to be affected by self - review. Further, all external auditors should not allow their independence to be affected by advocacy. The auditor's membership in a group will have a strong impression that the auditor is not being independent in terms of auditing a client. The Code of Ethics for external auditors commands that the external auditor must not have his membership in an organization affect the independence of the auditors. The auditors must be independent in fact and in appearance. For any sign that tinges on decreasing the independence of the external auditor would signal that the external auditor should immediately withdraw from the engagement. Definitely, all external auditors should not allow their independence to be affected by advocacy. Furthermore, all external auditors must not permit their independence to be affected by familiarity. It is a fact that many external auditors can easily finish their audit assignments for many of their former audit clients. The auditors will just focus on accounts that seem doubtful or where the internal control is weak because they had already issued an unqualified opinion on the prior financial statement.Ã Ã
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Job Analysis; Descriptions and Specifications - Case Study Example Job analysis can be conducted using qualitative tools such as interviews with existing clients or quantitative tools such as surveys or comparison to similar job roles in the competitive job market at other companies. Once parameters of the skills and knowledge needed to perform a job have been identified, it becomes easier for HR professionals to determine new pay categories that are competitive or directly in-line with job role function. New performance appraisals can also be developed to help human resources track performance of the employee in this job to determine whether goals are being met based on research findings. The entire process can be research intensive, however it helps leadership understand each job role and have a form of documentation available that helps the business identify with strengths or weaknesses of the job or how to better allocate resources if redundancies between job roles are identified. After conducting research, the skills, knowledge and abilities needed to successfully perform the job are documented. This could include educational credentials or the mental and physical needs of the job, depending on the environment and the complexity of the role. For example, research might indicate that typing speed of at least 60 words per minute is required to manage multi-tasking activities in the job, therefore the new job description will indicate that interviewers should be looking for people with high manual dexterity and speed. Either through observation, interviews or other measurement tools, the description is designed to best fit what has been discovered about the skills needed to accomplish the job tasks successfully. Pay grades are then determined based on what has been identified related to skills and the job role. Job analysis would also determine whether performance goals are being met properly based on research
Friday, August 23, 2019
Nursing intervention - Personal Statement Example In this regard, the complaints of the patient must be meticulously explored through obtaining a complete ophthalmic history, careful assessment of the patient's eyes and performing a relevant diagnostic procedure like the slit-lamp examination. As regarded above, obtaining a complete ophthalmic history, careful assessment of the patient's eyes and performing a relevant diagnostic procedure like the slit-lamp examination are essential aspects in making a sound judgment on the patient's case. According to Vader & Krouse (2001), an ophthalmic history encompasses the obtainment and utilization of the client's demographic data, current clinical manifestations, past health history or past medical history (PMH), psychosocial history and lifestyle, and family health history. These facts are deemed vital and important because they can certainly assist the health providers to have an accurate evaluation and understanding about the patient's condition. Demographic data, particularly the age and s... On the other hand, clinical manifestations, or signs and symptoms, such as loss of vision and glare must be suggestive of a particular visual disturbance like glaucoma or refractive errors. So, it is also important to take note of these manifestations as well as the complaints of the patients for further assessment and evaluation. Further, the patient's past medical history (PMH) can also provide valuable facts in relation to the ocular manifestations. For instance, the presence of ocular disorders is commonly seen in persons who have existing diabetes mellitus and thyroid diseases. In addition, histories of allergies to medications and substances that can precipitate ocular reactions or eye irritations are also investigated to determine how these factors affect the client's ocular/ophthalmic health. Moreover, psychosocial history and lifestyle, including the patient's occupation and daily activities, can also aid in the assessment as they provide information about the predisposing f actors related to the patient's condition such as exposure to substances that can irritate the eyes and other practices that affect ocular health. In this way, as a student nurse, it is important to ask the client about his/her recreational activities and occupational history, and whether the client wears glasses to protect his/her eyes or not, in order to establish relevant facts (Potter & Perry, 2001). In the same manner, family history provides data on the likelihood of having eye disorders that are hereditary, or genetic, which can run through generations. These familial disorders include strabismus and refractive errors such as myopia, or
Nursing journals - Essay Example ical inactivity, and associated medical conditions, as well as medication, are some of the key factors the journal identifies to be a contributor to obesity. The association between obesity and the occurrence of cardiovascular condition is the primary reason for effective management of obesity in accordance to the journal (Nieswiadomy, 2012). In consideration of the prior knowledge concerning obesity and cardiovascular conditions, I find the journal among the greatest works that exclusively covers the topic of obesity and co-morbidities. Giving an epidemiological inference to the occurrence of obesity and other cardiac conditions, the journal is important in relaying information of the global significance of obesity situations. This is crucial for the health care teams and other health care policy developers to prepare measures to control obesity. Giving both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in the management of obesity, the journal is in line with the world health intervention policies on management of conditions for achievement of universal coverage of health. The journal is thus one I could consider submitting for my paper as it gives a conclusive coverage of systematic approaches in the management of obesity. It is thus agreeable obesity is a complex and multifaceted disease that is chronic and relapsing; thus, the authors of the journal identify the challenges it can pose to the clinicians making obesity a major health concern (Haidar & Cosman,
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Sources of Finance Essay Finance: Finance is the study of how investors allocate their assets over time under conditions of certainty and uncertainty. A key point in finance, which affects decisions, is the time value of money, which states that a unit of currency today is worth more than the same unit of currency tomorrow. Finance aims to price assets based on their risk level, and expected rate of return. Finance can be broken into three different sub categories: public finance, corporate finance and personal finance. Why Do Businesses Need Finance? Finance is the money available to spend on business needs. Right from the moment someone thinks of a business idea, there needs to be cash. As the business grows there are inevitably greater calls for more money to finance expansion. The day to day running of the business also needs money. The main reasons a business needs finance are to: * Start a business: Depending on the type of business, it will need to finance the purchase of assets, materials and employing people. There will also need to be money to cover the running costs. It may be some time before the business generates enough cash from sales to pay for these costs. * Finance expansions to production capacity: As a business grows, it needs higher capacity and new technology to cut unit costs and keep up with competitors. New technology can be relatively expensive to the business and is seen as a long term investment, because the costs will outweigh the money saved or generated for a considerable period of time. And remember new technology is not just dealing with computer systems, but also new machinery and tools to perform processes quicker, more efficiently and with greater quality. * To develop and market new products: In fast moving markets, where competitors are constantly updating their products, a business needs to spend money on developing and marketing new products e.g. to do marketing research and test new products in Ã¢â¬Å"pilotÃ¢â¬ markets. These costs are not normally covered by sales of the products for some time (if at all), so money needs to be raised to pay for the research. * To enter new markets: When a business seeks to expand it may look to sell their products into new markets. These can be new geographical areas to sell to (e.g. export markets) or new types of customers. This costs money in terms of research and marketing e.g. advertising campaigns and setting up retail outlets. * Take-over or acquisition: When a business buys another business, it will need to find money to pay for the acquisition (acquisitions involve significant investment). This money will be used to pay owners of the business which is being bought. * Moving to new premises: Finance is needed to pay for simple expenses such as the cost of renting of removal vans, through to relocation packages for employees and the installation of machinery. * To pay for the day to day running of business: A business has many calls on its cash on a day to day basis, from paying a supplier for raw materials, paying the wages through to buying a new printer cartridge. * Special situations: For example, a decline in sales, possibly as a result of economic recession, could lead to cash needs to keep the business stable. Types of finance: It is pivotal to have access to money, in order to start and run a business. There are many ways to get money, all businesses need money. Where the money comes from is known as sources of finance. Now there are two different types of sources of finance: internal (finance from inside the business) and external (finance from outside the business). New businesses starting up need money to invest in long-term assets such as buildings and equipment. They also need cash to purchase materials, pay wages, and to pay the day-today- bills such as water and electricity. In-experienced entrepreneurs (or social entrepreneurs) often underestimate the capital needed for the everyday running of the business. Generally, for every Ã £1000 required to establish the business, another Ã £1000 is needed for day-to-day needs. This is why sources of finance are crucial for any business. Internal sources of finance: * Retained earnings: For any company, the amount of earnings retained within the business has a direct impact on the amount of dividends. Profit re-invested as retained earnings is profit that could have been paid as a dividend. The major reasons for using retained earnings to finance new investments, rather than to pay higher dividends and then raise new equity for the new investments, are as follows: a) The management of many companies believes that retained earnings are funds which do not cost anything, although this is not true. However, it is true that the use of retained earnings as a source of funds does not lead to a payment of cash. b) The dividend policy of the company is in practice determined by the directors. From their standpoint, retained earnings are an attractive source of finance because investment projects can be undertaken without involving either the shareholders or any outsiders. c) The use of retained earnings as opposed to new shares or debentures avoids issue costs. d) The use of retained earnings avoids the possibility of a change in control resulting from an issue of new shares. The advantage of using retained profits is thatÃ it does not have to be repaid as in the case of loan while the disadvantages can be that new business or loss making business may not have any retained profits and a business may have retained profits which are too few to finance the expense needed. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Own savings: Personal saving is an advantage for entrepreneurs; this will prevent stress and pressure of gathering money from scratch. Savings can be from previous employments, inheritance, and redundancy. This will be a positive head start for the business and a helping hand also advantage is its interest free. Moreover there is no need to borrow money externally and it is a quick way for the firm to obtain finance. On the other hand savings may be too low to finance the expense needed. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Partnership: This is when two savings is used to help start the business. This is an advantage as there is more money and less pressure. There is a disadvantage for this scheme; sometimes entrepreneurs may fall out over disagreements. * Sale of assets: Some companies often find that they have assets that are no longer fully employed. These could be sold to raise cash. In addition some businesses will sell assets that they still intend to use, but which they do not need to own. In these cases the assets might be sold to a leasing specialist and leased back by the company. This will raise capital and there will be better use of the existing capital in the business. However it may take some time to sell off these assets. * Decrease the amount of stock held: Its advantage is that it reduces the opportunity cost and storage cost of high stock level while a drawback might be that stock level should be kept to avoid disappointing customers. External sources of finance: * Shares: This option is only applicable to limited companies. They can raise finance by issuing shares. Public limited company will obviously be able to raise more finance since it can sell its shares to the public. There are two waysÃ in which businesses can issue shares. They can either go for a new issue or right issue. Selling shares to a new issue will simply mean that new members will be invited to join the business as shareholders. This method of rising capital can be expensive to organize. In addition the more share sold would mean a loss of control to the original shareholders. A right issue of share is where existing shareholders obtain the right to buy new shares in proportion to their current holding. This will avoid the problem of new shareholders changing the balance of ownership. The benefit is that issue shareholders is permanent source of capital which does not have to be repaid back unlike bank loans while a disadvantage may be that if the business is going for a new issue of shares, it might be costly and at the same time implies a loss of control for the original owners. * Bank lending: Borrowings from banks are an important source of finance to companies. Bank lending is still mainly short term, although medium-term lending is quite common these days. Short term lending may be in the form of: a) An overdraft, which a company should keep within a limit set by the bank. Interest is charged (at a variable rate) on the amount by which the company is overdrawn from day to day; b) Long term loan may be offered at either a variable or a fixed interest rate. Lending to smaller companies will be at a margin above the banks base rate and at either a variable or fixed rate of interest. Lending on overdraft is always at a variable rate. A loan at a variable rate of interest is sometimes referred to as a floating rate loan. Longer-term bank loans will sometimes be available, usually for the purchase of property, where the loan takes the form of a mortgage. When a banker is asked by a business customer for a loan or overdraft facility, he will consider several factors, known commonly by the mnemonic PARTS. Purpose Amount Repayment Term Security The advantage is that it is quickly to arrange and the business can obtain different sums of money, sometimes huge amount which can be paid over a long period of time. However the bank will have to be paid in addition with interest and also banks may ask for collateral security. * Hire purchase: Hire purchase is a form of installment credit. Hire purchase is similar to leasing, with the exception that ownership of the goods passes to the hire purchase customer on payment of the final credit installment, whereas a lessee never becomes the owner of the goods. The advantage is that the firm does not need to pay for the good immediately especially if it requires a huge sum of money while on the other hand interest rate has to be paid and this often makes the goods more expensive. * Government assistance: The government provides finance to companies in cash grants and other forms of direct assistance, as part of its policy of helping to develop the national economy, especially in high technology industries and in areas of high unemployment. For example, the Indigenous Business Development Corporation of Zimbabwe (IBDC) was set up by the government to assist small indigenous businesses in that country. Its benefit is that it does not have to be repaid back and the drawback is that businesses can only obtain help if they follow the conditions attached to it. For example, the need to locate in areas which are poorly developed. * Venture capital: Venture capital is money put into an enterprise which may all be lost if the enterprise fails. A businessman starting up a new business will invest venture capital of his own, but he will probably need extra funding from a source other than his own pocket. However, the term venture capital is more specifically associated with putting money, usually in return for an equity stake, into a new business, a management buy-out or a major expansion scheme. Venture capital firms usually look to retain their investment for between three and seven years or more. The term of the investment is often linked to the growth profile of the business. Investments in more mature businesses, where the business performance can be improved quicker and easier, are often sold sooner than investments in early-stage or technologyÃ companies where it takes time to develop the business model. Just as management teams compete for finance, so do venture capital firms. They raise their funds from several sources. To obtain their funds, venture capital firms have to demonstrate a good track record and the prospect of producing returns greater than can be achieved through fixed interest or quoted equity investments. Most UK venture capital firms raise their funds for investment from external sources, mainly institutional investors, such as pension funds and insurance companies. Venture capital firms investment preferences may be affected by the source of their funds. Many funds raised from external sources are structured as Limited Partnerships and usually have a fixed life of 10 years. Within this period the funds invest the money committed to them and by the end of the 10 years they will have had to return the investors original money, plus any additional returns made. This generally requires the investments to be sold, or to be in the form of quoted shares, before the end of the fund. * Borrowing from friends and family: This is also common. Friends and family who are supportive of the business idea provide money either directly to the entrepreneur or into the business. This can be quicker and cheaper to arrange (certainly compared with a standard bank loan) and the interest and repayment terms may be more flexible than a bank loan. However, borrowing in this way can add to the stress faced by an entrepreneur, particularly if the business gets into difficulties. *Trade credit: By delaying the payment of bills for goods or services received, a business is, in effect, obtaining finance. Its suppliers are providing goods and services without receiving immediate payment and this is as good as `lending money`. Its advantage is that it is an interest free of financial rate. However the suppliers might not agree or even refuse to supply the goods in the future if ever payment is not made quickly. * Leasing: It is where a firm can use an asset without the need to purchase it. The advantage is that there is no need to find large sums of money to purchase the asset and care and maintenance of the asset is the responsibility of theÃ leasing company whereas a disadvantage might be that the total cost of the leasing charges may be higher than purchasing the asset. * Factoring debt: Debt factors are specialist agencies that buy the debts of firms for immediate cash. However they will only give the company selling its debts 90% of the existing debts, the remaining will represent the factor`s profit. The benefit is that the company selling is debts will obtain immediate cash and the risk of collecting the debt is transferred to thee debt factor. On the other hand, the firm selling its debt does not receive the total value of its debts. Factors to be considered when choosing sources of finance: When a firm needs finance, it becomes crucial to pick how much finance they need and for how long. It can ruin or make a business. A firm will have a wide range of sources to choose finance from such as a bank loan or overdraft, share capital, venture capital, profit, or trade credit. However, some sources of cash are suited best for short term while others are best for long term and some are suited for little injections of cash while others are suited to huge injections of cash. Before a business decides what source of finance it should choose, they need to ask the question: * How Much Finance Can the Business Obtain? * The type and amount of finance that is available will depend on several factors. These are as follows: The type of business a sole trader will be limited to the capital the owner can put into the business plus any money he or she is able to borrow. A limited company will be able to raise share capital. In order to become a public limited company, it will need to share capital of Ã £50,000+ and a track record of success. This will make borrowing easier. The stage of development of the business a new business will find it much harder to raise finance than an established firm. As the business develops it is easier to persuade outsiders to invest in the business. It is also easier to obtain loans as the firm has assets to offer as security. The state of the economy when the economy is booming, business confidence will be high. It will be easy to raise finance both from borrowing and from investors. It will be more difficult for businesses to find investors whenÃ interest rates are high. They will invest their money in more secure accounts such as building societies. Higher interest rates will also put up the cost of borrowing. This will make it more expensive for the business to borrow. These factors will help make the firm decide how much it needs or can borrow. So, at this stage the business knows how much it needs and in the space period it needs it for. Here are the most logical solutions to sources of finance for short/long term and high/low finance: * Amount needed: * Shares issue and sales of debentures, because of the administration and other costs, would generally be used only for large capital sums. * Small bank loans or reducing debtor`s payment period could be used to raise small sums. * Cost: * Obtaining finance is never free, even internal finance may have opportunity cost. * Loans may become very expensive during a period of rising interest rates. * A stock exchange flotation can cost millions of dollars in fees and promotion of the share sale. * Legal structure and desire to retain control: * Share issues can only be used by limited companies- and only limited companies can sell shares directly to the public. Doing this runs the risk of the current owners losing some control Ã¢â¬â except if a right issue is used. * If the owners want to retain control of the business at all costs, then a sale of shares might be unwise. * Size of existing borrowing: * This is a key issue- the higher the existing debts of a business (compared with its size), the greater the risk of lending more. Banks and other lenders will become anxious about lending more finance. * This concept is referred to as gearing. * Flexibility: * When a firm has a variable need for finance- for example, it has a seasonal pattern of sales and cash receipts- a flexible form of finance is better than a long term and inflexible source.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Common Barriers to Communication There are many barriers that occur every single day that cause ineffective communication. Not many people are aware of these barriers. Studies have shown that not everyone is aware of their behavior when speaking or listening. Habits are hard to kick but it is not impossible. Some of these barriers can be avoided, some cannot, but that does not mean that there is no solution for it. Without putting the effort into avoiding some of these common communication barriers, miscommunications might occur. One should always be sincere when holding a conversation with someone therefore, these are some of the common communication barriers one should take note of. One of the most common communication barriers is language. Not everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s first language is the same, so trying to bring a message across could be difficult. It would of course be easier if both parties could speak the same language but if otherwise, then there could be other solutions for the problem. For example, during intern ational business meetings, they could hire a translator. Another alternative would be to make the effort to learn a bit of the other partyÃ¢â¬â¢s language to show sincerity in wanting to understand them better, and to avoid language barriers. Another scenario would be if a customer is not local and does not speak the native language, then we could try to find other ways to understand them. Most people have five senses, and if we donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand them, we could try other senses like seeing, which would mean, to Ã¢â¬ËactÃ¢â¬â¢ it out for them. These could be some of the ways to communicate with someone who does not speak the same language as us. Ã¢â¬Å"However, even when communicating in the same language, the terminology used in a message may act as a barrier if it is not fully understood by the receiver(s). For example, a message that includes a lot of specialist jargon and abbreviations will not be understood by a receiver who is not familiar with the terminology used. Ã¢â¬ (http://www.skillsyouneed.com/ips/barriers-communication.html#ixzz2x2ZuJjfh) Another common communication barrier is having poor listening skills. Ã¢â¬Å"We retain only about 50 percent of a ten-minute oral presentation immediately after we hear it, and about 25 percent of the same message after 48 hoursÃ¢â¬ (Day Rasberry, 1980, Page 43) Some barriers that could cause poor listening skills are, Ã¢â¬Å"laziness, disinterest, closed-mindedness, insincerity, boredom, etc.Ã¢â¬ (S. Golen, 1990 Page 25 to 35) and also, Ã¢â¬Å"Sometimes a listener and speaker experience communication problems due to effects of the thinking-speaking time differential. This differential results from the fact that the average person talks at a rate of about 125 words per minute, while a listener can process information at approximately 450 words per minute.Ã¢â¬ (Nixon West, 1989) Because of this, we have time to think about other things and therefore get distracted and are not focused on wha t the speaker has to say. In some cases, there are people who often interrupt when someone is talking. Ã¢â¬Å"Interruptions are usually the result of a listenerÃ¢â¬â¢s ego involvement or impatience with the speaker or the topic.Ã¢â¬ (Deborah Q. Gaut Eileen M. Perrigo, 1998 Page 40) A reason behind this could be that the interrupter feels more knowledgeable and feels the need to correct others when he or she feels that the other party is wrong. Another reason could be that the interrupter feels comfortable with the person he or she is talking to and thinks that it is okay to do so. Some of the characteristics of poor listeners are impatience, lack of direct eye contact, constant fidgeting, etc. Body language is very important and is a key strategy to read a person. An example would be, the listener keeps looking at the time, keeps fiddling with things or does not look at the speaker in the eyes. This would give the speaker the impression that whatever he or she has to say is no t important and it would also be showing that the listener is not showing any respect towards the speaker. There are also, cultural barriers. Different people have different beliefs and not everyone is knowledgeable of other cultures. Several barriers to intercultural communication have been identified, like Ã¢â¬Å"linguistic, physical, perceptual, experiential, verbal, etcÃ¢â¬ (Bell, 1992 ; Treece Kleen, 1997) There is also an Ã¢â¬Å"Important but not often recognized or visible barrier to intercultural communication: that of stress. Stress often accompanies communication between people of different cultural backgrounds because of the high degree of uncertainty, unfamiliarity and threat involved in the process.Ã¢â¬ (Pedersen and Pedersen, 1985) It is because of the short period of time you have with that certain person of a different culture to talk or discuss about something, which creates a high level of pressure to want to leave a good impression especially if it is about business or working together. Sometimes both parties could be speaking the same language but because of cultural differences, it could be hard to understand it in their accent so it would be extremely embarrassing for him or her to repeat several times just for the other person to try and understand the message that the speaker is trying to put across. A stereotype is defined as A conventional, formulaic, and oversimplified conception, opinion, or image (www.dictonary.com) It is common to be misunderstood by other people but it can also be very frustrating. Ã¢â¬ When an individual has a preconception about another individual, it makes it difficult for the individual not to view the other individuals communication with prejudice.Ã¢â¬ (http://www.studymode.com/essays/Barriers-To-Effective-Communication-77841.html) There are so many types of stereotypes. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"Someone working in an insubordinate position might be deemed to be uneducated with little to offer, when in fact, this is not true and employers can lose out on valuable opportunities by not communicating with them, and including those in the lower-level positions in the creative process.Ã¢â¬ (http://www.ehow.com/facts_6832310_stereotyping-affect-communication-work_.html#ixzz2x3RPpVd9) In addition, there are also gender stereotypes. Ã¢â¬Å"Gender roles typi cally call for men to be the more authoritative, in-control worker, with women as more emotional. This stereotype can adversely affect a womans role in the workplace, especially in senior management positions. Gender stereotypes prevent those with true, leadership and management capabilities from getting ahead. This adversely affects both the women and men in the workplace and their ability to communicate for the better of the company.Ã¢â¬ (http://www.ehow.com/facts_6832310_stereotyping-affect-communication-work_.html#ixzz2x3akKCJu) Ã¢â¬Å"Stereotypes based on race and ethnicity is not only morally wrong, but legally wrong as well, and can alienate employees. If employees are not communicating based on preconceived notions, they are not engaged in the same goals for the company and this will ultimately reflect in the companys failures.Ã¢â¬ (http://www.ehow.com/facts_6832310_stereotyping-affect-communication-work_.html#ixzz2x3bmP1xG) Everyone has been stereotyped by someone and /or has stereotyped someone before. It is one of the greatest communication barriers but yet it cannot be helped sometimes. It paints a picture of someone or something that may or may not be true, and instantly causes judgments without having to get to know the person, which is unfair. There are other barriers like noise that affect effective communications. Noise could affect our hearing and we may not understand the message the speaker was trying to put across. That way, misunderstanding could occur. Especially if someone wanted instructions to be carried out but the person who is supposed to execute it, heard it differently. Ã¢â¬Å"For instance, you may assume that because people are nodding while you speak, they understand and agree with what you are saying. Similarly, if you invite questions about your message and get none, it would be easy to assume therearenone.The truth is, few people will risk the potential embarrassment of being the only one who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t agree with or understand your message or doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know what to ask. To assume they do would be a mistake.Ã¢â¬ (http://gwynteatro.wordpress.com/2011/11/20/4-barriers-to-effective-communication-what-to-do-about-them/) In some cases, assumptions could be accurate, but if it is not, then it cou ld lead to a communication breakdown. Ã¢â¬Å"We all use selective perception in composing and interpreting informationÃ¢â¬ (Irene F. H. Wong and Michael D. Connor and Ulrike M. Murfett, 2006, Page 12) In conclusion, there are many barriers that cause ineffective communications. These are barriers that people should take into consideration in order to avoid misunderstandings and misjudgments. Being a good listener has its advantages. It helps us understand messages, instructions, etc better and understanding the message or instruction that is put across to us would help us perform better and/or meet customersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations. But first of all, one must be willing to listen and be focused on the topic. A good listener should also respond appropriately. Ã¢â¬Å"Communication is two-way. A response is called for. It may be no more than applause Ã¢â¬â or even silence. But it is still a response, which will in turn be interpreted by the speaker.Ã¢â¬ (John Adair, 2009, Page 92 ) Being an effective speaker also has its advantages. When speaking, it has to be clear, simple, vivid and natural so that the message can be broad across clearly and that the listener understands. Overall, being a good listener and a good speaker affects effective communications. It works both ways.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Techniques of Team Building for Organizational Development Abstract In organizational development the team building process can benefit the corporation by grouping people together with common skills and providing them with a clear and concise mission and common goal. Team building is also a function that does not end when the team comes together, but is an ongoing process that runs throughout the project. Teams are a necessary part of organizations and will be important far into the future. The knowledge of team cultures and dynamics can be an invaluable tool for organizations. Techniques of Team Building for Organizational Development A Review of Forming and Managing Teams within an Organization A team is a small number of people with complementary skills, who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable (Gordon p. 489). Teams are also described as groups of two or more people who interact and influence each other, are mutually accountable for achieving common goals associated with organizational objectives, and perceive themselves as a social entity within an organization (McShane 2010, p. 234). Since the beginning of time there have been teams such as hunting teams, where each member of the team has a specific task, but the overall goal for the team was to kill an animal for food. When man began building large structures there were work teams that would be in charge of producing the stones for the structure, work teams that would be in charge of moving the stones from the quarry to the structures construction site, and work teams that constructed the structure. The purpose of building teams is to allow employees to participate in the planning problem-solving and decision-making to better produce products and provide services. When companies grow they become more complex, therefore having groups or teams within the company allows the company to perform tasks more efficiently and effectively. An example of this can be seen in the automotive industry. Small car companies can have as few as seven employees performing specific skills to produce one vehicle at a time. Over time if this company is successful and begins to grow it will need to hire more employees. These employees will need to be placed into teams with each team performing a certain task or group of tasks in a certain area such as a body shop, and engine shop, a chassis shop, or an interior shop. Each shop has a group of employees that specialize in a particular area in the company that is necessary to produce the product. When the company was small one person could build an engine in a day for one car, but as the company grew more people are required to build more engines for more cars each day. There are various different types of teams: work teams, project and development teams, parallel teams, management teams, transitional teams, virtual teams, and self-managed teams. Work teams perform operations like manufacturing, assembling, selling, or providing services (Gordon p. 490). Work teams are the most common type of teams because theyre the most basic. Project and development teams work on projects that take a long time and they have specific tasks such as research and development. The teams new members usually contribute expert knowledge and judgment to the project, so they must be trained in that particular area for the work that is being performed. These teams work on one project and then disband when it is completed. Parallel teams are made up of individuals who are picked from various different teams in the organization and brought together to work outside the organization temporarily. Parallel teams are different in that they are formed to produce a product or service that is not normally done within the organization. Management teams provide direction to and work within, to other teams under their leadership. Management teams are a group of managers responsible for different subunits were together form a team and establish should take a direction and manage the companys overall performance. Transnational teams have members in multiple countries and are different from other work teams because they are multicultural and geographically dispersed. Also transnational teams also tend to be virtual teams. A virtual team has members that are not located in the same location. They communicate through e-mail, telephone, or with a teleconference system. Virtual teams created difficult challenges because of the way they operate and communicate. Virtual teams are usually made up of self-managing professionals. Some of them are made up of individuals that are trained to do all or most the jobs for specific task and have no supervision. Usually, as with virtual teams, self managed teams make the decisions that are usually made by their supervisors. There are advantages and disadvantages of forming teams. Early studies have shown that under the right conditions teams make better decisions, develop better products and services, and create a more engaged workforce than do employees working alone (McShane p. 237). Most teams create an environment that promotes communication, motivation, and better work ethics. Most employees prefer to work in teams because it gives them a sense of belonging. The motivation to work can be strong when the team is part of the employees social identity and by being accountable to their team members who watches their performance and quality of work more than their supervisor would. The drawbacks of developing teams is that the teams take a lot of energy and resources to develop and that some of the members of the team may not be trained to the level of skills that are required to be at to perform the certain task asked of them. Another disadvantage of developing teams is that adding new members to an ex isting team may drawdown the process and quality of work performed by the team. Source: Retrieved from PM: Program Manager (Online) July August 2002 Issue p. 79 There are five stages of team development; they are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjoining. Forming is when the members get acquainted with each other and figure out the benefits of staying in the team. During this stage the members learn about the evolving culture within the team and the social boundaries in its environment. The storming stage is when the members become more comfortable in the team that they begin to test the boundaries and become more competitive with each other. During this stage norms of appropriate behavior are established. Norms are the shared rules and expectations that are established to regulate the behaviors that are important to the members of the team. The norming stage is when the team members come together and gain trust within the team. As objectives are established the team members begin to form a consensus on the goals. During the performing stage the team member are resolving conflicts by themselves. The members adjust to changes in the environment easier than at any other time. The adjourning stage comes at the completion of the project, the members disband and move on to other projects and teams or as an old team they take on a new project and start the process all over again. Teambuilding is an ongoing process, even though the team is formed, the process of maintaining the team goes on throughout the project. The most important property of a team is cohesiveness. Cohesiveness is the degree to which a group is attractive to its members, members are motivated to remain in the group, and the members influence one another (Gordon 2010 p. 501). The two reasons why cohesiveness is important in the team is first, it contributes to the member satisfaction and second, cohesiveness has a major impact on the teams performance. An organizational planner may be called on by company to assist them in developing or managing their teams. To be successful in this you need to know about personal behaviors, team dynamics, and about the individual roles within a team. When constructing teams it is best to select team members who are trained to perform the required roles necessary for that job so they may become effective contributors to the team. There are two roles that must be performed within the team, first the team specialist is a role that is filled by an individual who has a particular job-related ski ll and ability, secondly the team maintenance specialists develop and maintain harmony within the team by boosting morale, giving support, providing humor, soothing hurt feelings, and generally exhibiting a concern with team members well-being. The most important facet for team effectiveness that an organization must know is that to enable the teams productivity and cohesiveness the members must have a clear and concise knowledge of what tasks and duties they are responsible for. As a team performs a job, the individuals within the team perform specific tasks the culmination of these tasks make up the jobs at the team is responsible for. Allowing team members to be involved with the leadership and decision-making process will also motivate them toward superior performance as well as assisting them in the understanding of what they are required to perform through clear communication. Being able to identify performance norms allows for adjustments in the team to achieve optimal output and member satisfaction. In an article about building a better team Kevin Mehok stated: Picking the right players is critical to building a solid team. There are so many aspects of this process. You need to have the right people for the right job (2010 p. 2). The following chart displays the high and low cohesiveness versus the high and low performance norms. (High cohesiveness and low performance norms shows that there is high goal attainment based on the groups perspective but there is a low task performance based on managements perspective. Source: retrieved from, /imagecache/book/28776/fwk-bauer-fig09_004.jpg>. Low cohesiveness and low performance shows that there is poor goal attainment and poor task performance. With high cohesiveness and high performance norms there is a high goal attainment and a high task performance whereas with the low cohesiveness and high performance norms there is moderate goal attainment and task performance. Non-cohesive groups with high performance norms can be effective from the companys standpoint; however they wont be as productive as they would be if they were more cohesive (Gordon 2010 p. 502). Being able to understand the teams cultural environment makes it easier to make adjustments if necessary to enhance the teams cohesiveness. Some of the cultural environments are the clan, adhocracy, market, and hierarchy. A summary of the Hawthorn White Paper (2009) described the four different cultures as in a clan when the members identify with the group like they would a family where the emphasis is on team and teamwork and the members are loyal and friendly. Adhocracy is when the members have a large amount of independence with an emphasis on developing cutting-edge products and services. Hierarchy is where tradition and formality are dominant values and the emphasis is on stability, rules, and efficient processes. Market is where the members are competitive, hard-working, and demanding with the emphasis on productivity and beating the competition. Teams that are operating effectively and efficiently can identify problems faster. This allows the members to feel more confident in the decision making process. Having confident team members also reduces constructive conflict. When building an effective team there are a few activities that can be performed to boost morale, communication, and trust, along with having a lot of fun. Activities can range anywhere from a simple 10 minute exercise to a week long adventure. Measuring how effective such one-time activities are in changing a culture is difficult, so team building now employs more subtle methods to break down mistrust, inadequate leadership, and weak communication among employees (Laff 2006 p. 1). The greatest effect of these activities is the members are awakened by the obstacles of working with others, this comes out at the end of the exercise when they discuss there experience with each other. Usually a company will hire someone to facilitate these team building activities. One of the activities is that Alan Chapman (2010) posted on his web site that a developer can facilitate. It is an experiment to explore the brains capability to estimate scale. Using sticky notes have the team members mark a distance of ten feet on the floor, a height of three feet on a wall, and a distance of one yard on a table. They must do this without a measuring device. Review the activities as appropriate for your purposes, points for example: What surprises did we find? What clues are there to peoples different abilities? What differences are there in guessing different types of scale? What creative methods were used in measuring? How does the brain guess something? In work/life how do we decide when to guess and when to measure, and are these the best criteria? How can we make our guessing more reliable? (If exercises are performed in teams) are team guesses more reliable than individual guesses? What merit is there in the Wisdom of Crowds in guessing and making intuitive judgments? At the end of the exercise the facilitator will provide an assessment of the effectiveness that the activities provided the organization along with possible follow up events to maintain team cohesiveness. Have a facilitator draw out the dynamics using the Socratic Method of learning to tie together what happens in the office setting with what the members just experienced. Also remember to remind participants that they are not at the office, many of the activities still contain some form of gaming (Laff 2006, p. 1). Training team members to operate in the environment around them and not to hide from it, ignore it, and to not fight it will further enhance their efficiency in the team. May organizations are looking to streamline their operations, one of the tools they can turn to is hiring team building facilitators to perform exercises and give feedback. Of all of the functions an organizational developer performs to analyze, troubleshoot, and coach an organization toward their optimal output, team building is one of the most effective.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Abstract The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model is a standard reference model for the communication between two end users. Seven different layers make up the OSI model: physical, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, and application. This paper will cover the type of security that is associated with each level of the OSI model. Physical Layer The physical layer is where the actual communication occurs between devices. The security of the physical layer pertains to the actual hardware. The vulnerabilities of the physical layer include: Ãâ¢ Power outage Ãâ¢ Environmental control loss Ãâ¢ Hardware theft, damage or destruction Ãâ¢ Unauthorized hardware changes (i.e.; removable media, data connections) Ãâ¢ Detachment of the physical data links Ãâ¢ Unnoticeable Data Interception Ãâ¢ Keystroke Logging Certain measures can be implemented to ensure the physical layer is secure. This would be done by storing all hardware in a locked environment. The use of electronic locks would control and log all access to the room containing the hardware. The electronic locks could be a PIN and password or fingerprint scanner (biometrics). The use of video and audio surveillance would provide physical proof of unauthorized access that could compromise the hardware. Data Link Layer The second layer of the OSI model is the data link layer. This is the layer that transports the data between network nodes in a wide area network (WAN) or on the same local area network (LAN) between nodes. The data link layer makes available the procedural and functional means to move data between network devices and could provide the measures to find and possibly correct errors that may occur in the physical layer. The security vulnerabi... ...on. This is to stop any unauthorized use of the network. Conclusion In conclusion, the information covered in this paper shows the different types of security that is associated with each level of the standard OSI model. From the physical layer to the application layer, each layer has a different type of security which must be applied at each layer to prevent any security leaks, spoofing, and infinite loops. These are just a few of the different vulnerabilities that must be protected on a WLAN or LAN. References Reed (November 21, 2003). Applying the OSI seven layer model to Information Security. Retrieved on January 11, 2008, from SANS Institute. Website: http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/protocols/1309.php Haden (2008). The OSI Model. Retrieved on January 11, 2008, from Data Network Resource. Website: http://www.rhyshaden.com/osi.htm Security and the OSI Model Essay -- Networks Telecommunications Abstract The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model is a standard reference model for the communication between two end users. Seven different layers make up the OSI model: physical, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, and application. This paper will cover the type of security that is associated with each level of the OSI model. Physical Layer The physical layer is where the actual communication occurs between devices. The security of the physical layer pertains to the actual hardware. The vulnerabilities of the physical layer include: Ãâ¢ Power outage Ãâ¢ Environmental control loss Ãâ¢ Hardware theft, damage or destruction Ãâ¢ Unauthorized hardware changes (i.e.; removable media, data connections) Ãâ¢ Detachment of the physical data links Ãâ¢ Unnoticeable Data Interception Ãâ¢ Keystroke Logging Certain measures can be implemented to ensure the physical layer is secure. This would be done by storing all hardware in a locked environment. The use of electronic locks would control and log all access to the room containing the hardware. The electronic locks could be a PIN and password or fingerprint scanner (biometrics). The use of video and audio surveillance would provide physical proof of unauthorized access that could compromise the hardware. Data Link Layer The second layer of the OSI model is the data link layer. This is the layer that transports the data between network nodes in a wide area network (WAN) or on the same local area network (LAN) between nodes. The data link layer makes available the procedural and functional means to move data between network devices and could provide the measures to find and possibly correct errors that may occur in the physical layer. The security vulnerabi... ...on. This is to stop any unauthorized use of the network. Conclusion In conclusion, the information covered in this paper shows the different types of security that is associated with each level of the standard OSI model. From the physical layer to the application layer, each layer has a different type of security which must be applied at each layer to prevent any security leaks, spoofing, and infinite loops. These are just a few of the different vulnerabilities that must be protected on a WLAN or LAN. References Reed (November 21, 2003). Applying the OSI seven layer model to Information Security. Retrieved on January 11, 2008, from SANS Institute. Website: http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/protocols/1309.php Haden (2008). The OSI Model. Retrieved on January 11, 2008, from Data Network Resource. Website: http://www.rhyshaden.com/osi.htm
Sunday, August 18, 2019
TampaÃ¢â¬â¢s future, something each resident of Tampa and its sprawl should care about. The Tampa Planning Commission offered a chance to residents to come up with ideas, over looked problems, and solutions to be considered and added to TampaÃ¢â¬â¢s Plan. The planning Commission held five meetings that consisted of the resident Ã¢â¬Å"study circleÃ¢â¬ and Tampa planners together they hoped to move forward in a progressive and positive way. Session One 10-1-04 Session one was held at New Tampa Library and its topic was Ã¢â¬Å"How is change or the lack of change affecting our community?Ã¢â¬ I walked into the meeting and immediately I was out of place. In fact I was asked if I was there for the story time across the hall. It was strange to see what I think is the future of Tampa not represented. It was obvious by the story time remark that these people were not expecting my age range to be represented either. Our topic came with a couple of reports for our review and for us to add personal perspective to. The first meeting explained how we were to interact with each other and that it was just a big conversation. The meeting started with introductions, and Tampa was well represented and most people there have lived in more than one part of Tampa. The meeting started with a question to get the conversation started and the Planning Commission members took notes to pull out the major concerns and ideas of what we were saying. The facilitator asked Ã¢â¬Å"Is the character of TampaÃ¢â¬â¢s neighborhoods better than eight years ago?Ã¢â¬ This got the circle to talk about the individual neighborhoods that make up Tampa. One point realized in examining our neighborhoods is that change is not consistent or even. One problem mentioned was an increase in traffic and its effects on residential areas. Back roads are no longer safe for residents or bikes. One solution to this problem was the widening of I-275. On the other hand, what will this new construction do to one of TampaÃ¢â¬â¢s oldest and most history holding communities of Tampa Heights. The solutions are turning into more effects and impacts . This made me realize that there is still a divide even among one city. Person A who needs to get to his high paying job from far away in sprawl doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care about person BÃ¢â¬â¢s semi lower-income neighborhood or the people or history that make it up.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
In The Great Gatsby money is a symbol of success. Money controls the lives of the characters in the story, but it is easy to see that it could not bring happiness. Each of the characters thinks that having money will solve all of their problems and make them successful, but that is not true. These are a few examples of characters in the story who think that money is the answer to being successful, when it actually does not bring them true happiness. Daisy is a character who was born into a wealthy family, but she does not have any good values or purpose in her life. Her life is boring, so she tries to use her wealth to make her happy. She is a socialite, always goes to parties with her wealthy friends, and she wears clothes that are white with a lot of gold and silver. Even though she thinks that these things will make her happy, she is still bored and always wonders what she will do next. She has an affair with Gatsby even though she is married to a wealthy man, Tom, because she is bored. She does not value herself or anyone else. Her money has not made her a happy person even though everything she does is based on wealth. Gatsby has a lot of money. Even though he has a huge house, fancy cars and clothes, and has parties all the time, he is not really corrupted by the money. He does everything he does just to get Daisy and prove to her by his wealth that he is good enough for her. He thinks that all he has will get her to marry him, but he does not realize that Daisy will never leave her husband because he is so wealthy. DaisyÃ¢â¬â¢s husband Tom is very wealthy. He gambles, goes to horse and car races, and has many affairs. He has a mistress that he supports, but obviously not happy with his life. When he finds out that Daisy has been having an affair, he gets angry with her even though he is guilty of doingÃ the same thing. Daisy and Tom are not happy, their money and success have not made them happy, but daisy will not leave Tom because he is wealthy. In The Great Gatsby money is seen as a symbol of success by the characters. They have all of the clothes, cars, houses, and social events that they want and that money can buy. Despite all of this, they are unhappy, have no real values or friends, and no real purpose in life.
Something new made me very motivated today to review an extraordinary piece of music. Actually this my first time reviewing or even talking about piece from that style of music. Today, I am going to introduce very nice piece of music for all my classmates in the musoc appriceation class, and this piece call Ã¢â¬Å" Symphony No. 5Ã¢â¬ for one of greatist musicians and composers in the entire universe, who is Ã¢â¬Å" Beethoven Ã¢â¬Å". Usually , my favorite style of music is that kind of light music that expresses happiness and how good is the life, but this time, I left this track moving to another style. Beethoven 5th symphony is piece of music refers to the classic period, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s composer Ã¢â¬Å" BeethovenÃ¢â¬ was one of the most important composers on that era. The 5th symphony has all the charcteristics that all music in the classic period had. Very simple notes could expresses very hard feelings that beethoven felt during his life. Beethoven started this piece with repeated basic motive followed by suden, and powerful notes that can attract the audiance get intersting to listen to it. Strings played very important role on the attractive introduction of the symphony. After that, the orchestera playes very quick and repeatative notes, and right after beethoven changed that high pitch to lower pitch. That change of the pitch and the texture gave this piece a different taste from the other pieces of music. Although the 5th Symphony is considered one of BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest musical works because it was very good example to express Beethoven life. Understanding this piece of music will give fearÃ¢â¬â¢s feeling to anyone listen to it. I believe that Beethoven 5th symphony became very succesful and famous piece of music because it was expressing a real feeling associated with its composer. In my opinion , Beethoven felt each note he wrote on this music, and that was reason who made this music very touchy to everyone listen to it. I personally felt this piece of music since I heard it on my first time in the music appriceation class. When I first heard this piece, I felt as it was playing just for me to express what I feel, so Beethoven succes was on this point, which is write notes express many peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s sad feelings. In summary, the reason for the great fame and popularity of this Symphony is that it distills so much of BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s musical style. One feature is its Ã¢â¬Å"organicism,Ã¢â¬ the fact that all four movements seem to grow from seeds sown in the opening measures. While Beethoven used the distinctive rhythmic figure of three shorts and a long in other works from this time, so I encourage everyone to listen to at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_4IRMYuE1hI. Works Cited Beethoven. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_4IRMYuE1hI
Friday, August 16, 2019
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS Ã¢â¬â M2. 04 DEVELOPING THE WORK TEAM Learner name Learner registration number UNDERSTAND THE NATURE OF TEAMS AND THE FEATURES OF TEAM ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES INCLUDING THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 1. How does a team differ from a group? Give 3 examples of the differences. (3 marks) hell 2. Leading the team is an important team role. Briefly describe 2 other roles that members of a team might fill using a recognised model (2 marks) . Describe the 4 stages in team development (4 marks) R6434c v2 13. 01. 11 4. Briefly describe 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages for an organisation of using teams to organise people to produce goods and services. (4 marks) KNOW HOW TO IDENTIFY TRAINING NEEDS OF A GROUP OR TEAM AND HOW THOSE NEEDS MAY BE MET 5. Explain briefly why an organisation might want to carry out a Ã¢â¬ËTraining Needs AnalysisÃ¢â¬â¢ of its employees (4 marks) R6434c v2 13. 01. 11 6.State 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of each of the following ways of training your team: a. Going on a 1 day training course away from the workplace b. Having a trainer come in and train them in the workplace c. You coaching them individually in the workplace (6 marks) Total marks available for unit M2. 04 (23) Marks required to pass 12 + VLA decision Total Marks Total 50%+ overall Outcome (mark as applicable) PASS FAIL Section fail if applicable: Name of VLA: Assessment date: R6434c v2 13. 01. 11
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Labor DisputesÃ¢â¬ includes any controversy or matter concerning terms or conditions of employment or the association or representation of persons in negotiating, fixing, maintaining, changing or arranging the terms and d conditions of employment, regardless or whether the disputants stand in the proximate relation of employer and employee. (Art. 212) Remedies in Labor Disputes A.Grievance ProcedureÃ¢â¬âin-house adjustment of complaint, problem, or dispute following the steps prescribed in CBA or company policy. B.Conciliation (literally means Ã¢â¬Å"to draw togetherÃ¢â¬ ) Ã¢â¬â a process where a disinterested third party meets with management and labor, at their request or otherwise, during a labor dispute or in collective bargaining conferences, and, by cooling tempers, aids in reaching an agreement. C.Mediation (literally means Ã¢â¬Å"to be in the middleÃ¢â¬ ) Ã¢â¬â a third party studies each side of the dispute then makes proposal for the disputants to consider. But a mediator, like a conciliator, cannot render an award or render a decision; they do not adjudicate. Conciliation and mediation, usually combined, are done primarily by Ã¢â¬Å"Conciliators-MediatorsÃ¢â¬ of the National Conciliation and Mediation Board. D.Enforcement or compliance order Ã¢â¬â an act of the Secretary of Labor (through Regional Director or the representative) in the exercise of his visitorial or administrative authority to enforce labor laws, policies, plans, or programs, or rules and regulations (Art. 128). E.Certification of bargaining representatives Ã¢â¬â determination of which contending unions shall represent employees in collective bargaining. This is handling by Ã¢â¬Å"Med-ArbitersÃ¢â¬ of DOLE Regional Offices after certification of consent elections. F.Arbitration Ã¢â¬â the submission of a dispute to an impartial person for determination on the basis of evidence and arguments of the parties. Arbitration, unlike conciliation or mediation, is adjudication and the arbitratorÃ¢â¬â¢s decision or award is enforceable upon the disputants. A dispute pending in arbitration cannot be a ground for strike or lockout; to do so will be a sabotage of the arbitration process. Section 3. Article 211 of the same Code, as amended by Executive Order No. 111, is hereby further amended to read as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"Article 211. Declaration of policy. Ã¢â¬â A. It is the policy of the State: Ã¢â¬Å"(a) To promote and emphasize the primacy of free collective bargaining and negotiations, including voluntary arbitration, mediation and conciliation, as modes of settling labor or industrial disputes; Ã¢â¬Å"(b) To promote free trade unionism as an instrument for the enhancement of democracy and the promotion of social justice and development; Ã¢â¬Å"(c) To foster the free and voluntary organization of a strong and united labor movement; Ã¢â¬Å"(d) To promote the enlightenment of workers concerning their rights and obligations as union members and as employees; Ã¢â¬Å"(e) To provide adequate administrative machinery for the expeditious settlement of labor or industrial disputes; Ã¢â¬Å"(f) To ensure a stable but dynamic and just industrial peace; and Ã¢â¬Å"(g) To ensure the participation of workers in decision and policy-making processes affecting their rights, duties and welfare. Ã¢â¬Å" B. To encourage a truly democratic method of regulating the relations between the employers and employees by means of agreements freely entered into through collective bargaining, no court or administrative agency or official shall have the power to set or fix wages, rates of pay, hours of work or other terms and conditions of employment, except as otherwise provided under this Code.Ã¢â¬ Sec. 4. Article 212 of the Labor Code of the Philippines, as amended, is further amended to read as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"Article 212. Definitions. Ã¢â¬â (a) Ã¢â¬Å"CommissionÃ¢â¬ means the National Labor Relations Commission or any of its divisions, as the case may be, as provided under this Code. Ã¢â¬Å"(b) Ã¢â¬Å"BureauÃ¢â¬ means the Bureau of Labor Relations and/or the Labor Relations Divisions in the regional offices established under Presidential Decree No. 1, in the Department Labor. Ã¢â¬Å"(c) Ã¢â¬Å"BoardÃ¢â¬ means the National Conciliation and Mediation Board established under Exec utive Order No. 126. Ã¢â¬Å"(d) Ã¢â¬Å"CouncilÃ¢â¬ means the Tripartite Voluntary Arbitration Advisory Council established under Executive Order No. 126, as amended. Ã¢â¬Å" (e) Ã¢â¬Å"EmployerÃ¢â¬ includes any person acting in the interest of an employer, directly or indirectly. The term shall not include any labor organization or any of its officers or agents except when acting as employer. Ã¢â¬Å"(f) Ã¢â¬Å"EmployeeÃ¢â¬ includes any person in the employ of an employer. The term shall not be limited to the employees of a particular employer, unless this Code so explicitly states. It shall include any individual whose work has ceased as a result of or in connection with any current labor dispute or because of any unfair labor practice if he has not obtained any other substantially equivalent and regular employment. Ã¢â¬Å"(g) Ã¢â¬Å"Labor organizationÃ¢â¬ means any union or association of employees which exists in whole or in part for the purpose of collective bargaining or of dealing with employers concerning terms and conditions of employment. Ã¢â¬Å"(h) Ã¢â¬Å"Legitimate labor organizationÃ¢â¬ means any labor organization duly registered with the Department of Labor and Employment, and includes any branch or local thereof. Ã¢â¬Å" (i) Ã¢â¬Å"Company unionÃ¢â¬ means any labor organization whose information, function or administration has been assisted by any act defined as unfair labor practice by this Code. Ã¢â¬Å"(j) Ã¢â¬Å"Bargaining representativeÃ¢â¬ means a legitimate labor organization or any officer or agent of such organization whether or not employed by the employer. Ã¢â¬Å"(k) Ã¢â¬Å"Unfair labor practiceÃ¢â¬ means any unfair labor practice as expressly defined by this Code. Ã¢â¬Å"(l) Ã¢â¬Å"Labor disputeÃ¢â¬ includes any controversy or matter concerning terms or conditions of employment or the association or representation of persons in negotiating, fixing, maintaining, changing or arranging the terms and conditions of employment, regardless of whether, the disputants stand in the proximate relation of employer and employee. Ã¢â¬Å" (m) Ã¢â¬Å"Managerial employeeÃ¢â¬ is one who is vested with powers or prerogatives to lay down and execute management policies and/or to hire, transfer, suspend, lay-off, recall, discharge, assign or discipline employees. Supervisory employees are those who, in the interest of the employer, effectively recommend such managerial actions if the exercise of such authority is not merely routinary or clerical in nature but requires the use of independent judgment. All employees not falling within any of the above definitions are considered rank-and-file employees for purposes of this Book. Ã¢â¬Å" (n) Ã¢â¬Å"Voluntary ArbitratorÃ¢â¬ means any person accredited by the Board as such, or any person named or designated in the collective bargaining agreement by the parties to act as their voluntary arbitrator, or one chosen, with or without the assistance of the National Conciliation and Mediation Board, pursuant to a selection procedure agreed upon in the collective bargaining agreement, or any official that may be authorized by the Secretary of Labor and Employment to act as voluntary arbitrator upon the written request and agreement of the parties to a labor dispute. Ã¢â¬Å"(o) Ã¢â¬Å"StrikeÃ¢â¬ means any temporary stoppage of work by the concerted action of employees as a result of an industrial or labor dispute. Ã¢â¬Å" (p) Ã¢â¬Å"LockoutÃ¢â¬ means the temporary refusal of an employer to furnish work as a result of an industrial or labor dispute. Ã¢â¬Å"(q) Ã¢â¬Å"Internal union disputeÃ¢â¬ includes all disputes or grievances arising from any violation of or disagreement over any provision of the constitution and by-laws of a union, including, any violation of the rights and conditions of union membership provided for in this Code. Ã¢â¬Å" (r) Ã¢â¬Å"Strike-breakerÃ¢â¬ means any person who obstructs, impedes, or interferes with by force, violence, coercion, threats or intimidation any peaceful picketing by employees during any labor controversy affecting wages, hours or conditions of work or in the exercise of the right of self-organization or collective bargaining. Ã¢â¬Å"(s) Ã¢â¬Å"Strike areaÃ¢â¬ means the establishment, warehouses, depots, plants or offices, including the sites or premises used as runaway shops, of the employer struck against, as well as the immediate vicinity actually used by picketing strikers in moving to and fro before all points of entrance to and exit from said establishment.Ã¢â¬