Saturday, December 28, 2019
Learning to read is an exciting milestone for kindergarteners. Early reading skills include letter recognition, phonemic awareness, decoding, blending, and sight word recognition. Go beyond worksheets to improve kindergarten reading comprehension and skill through hands-on learning activities, games, and targeted techniques. Key Takeaways: Building Comprehension Build a foundation for comprehension by providing explicit phonics instruction and reinforcing new knowledge through interactive games.Select books with repetitive text that focus on topics your child enjoys, and read each one multiple times. Repetition encourages comprehension.While you read, help your child make connections by asking questions about the story and encouraging them to visualize it.Use anchor charts for reading comprehension. These can include reminders about decoding techniques, making connections, or visualizing the story. Start with a Strong Foundation Overall reading success, including strong comprehension skills, begins with phonemic awareness. More than merely reciting the alphabet, kindergartners need to learn the sounds that eachÃ letter makes.Ã Phonemic awareness also includes: Blending individual soundsIsolating beginning and ending sounds and recognizing words that start or end with the same soundsSegmenting words into individual sounds Children need explicit phonics instruction. This instructionÃ builds on phonemic awareness to teach the relationship between letters or groups of letters and sounds. The most effective phonics instruction follows a specific sequence beginning with vowel and consonant sounds and building to two- and three-letter blends, double consonant ends, plural words, and diagraphs (letter blends such as ch, sh, bl, and th). Kindergarten students should work on recognizing high-frequency words commonly known as sight words. Fry words andÃ Dolch sight words are two such word lists.Ã Play Kindergarten Reading Games Get young children involved in hands-on activities that improve their phonemic awareness and reading comprehension skills. Roll Word Families Start with two blank dice. On one, write word-beginning consonant sounds, such as b, s, t, m, p, and r. On the second, write word-ending vowel-consonant sounds, such as at, op, an, in, ap and et). Ensure that the child will be able to combine the beginning and ending sounds to create consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words. To play, invite your child to roll the dice and read the resulting word. Some of the combinations will be nonsense words, but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s OK. Nonsense words still provide practice blending sounds. If desired, ask students to identify which words are real and which are nonsense. I Spy SendÃ children on a CVC or sight word scavenger hunt through classroom booksÃ with a simple I Spy game. Ask them to search the books forÃ CVCÃ or sightÃ words, then report back on the words they find. Act Out Passages Encourage students to act out a scene from a book they are reading. This fun, simple activity adds meaning to the words on the page and helps children focus on and visualize those meanings. Bingo Use a preprinted sight word bingo card or fill a blank template with sight words or CVC words. Create a few different card options and give one to each student, along with marker chips. Call out the words one at a time. As students locate each word on their card, they will cover it with a marker until they have five in a row. Reading Recommendations for Kindergarten When looking for books that kindergarten students can read independently (or with a little help), itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to keep a few things in mind: Use the five-finger rule. If a student makes five errors reading a page from a book, itÃ¢â¬â¢s too hard. One error is too easy. Four errors might mean the book is acceptable for the student to try with some help. The sweet spot for a just right book is only two or three errors per page.Its OK for children to read the same book multiple times. It may seem as if this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t helpful for reading comprehension because they are memorizing the text. BecomingÃ comfortableÃ and familiar with text improves reading fluency, vocabulary, and word recognition.Ã Reading books with repetitive text, such as The Foot Book or Hop on Pop by Dr. Seuss, improves reading comprehension. Include books with familiar sight words such as Big Brown Bear or Big Pig, Little Pig, both by David McPhail.Ã Help students select childrens books on topics that interest them. Keep in mind that some children prefer fiction books while others thrive on nonfiction. Try nonfiction books written for early readers such as Baby Pandas by Bethany Olson, Big Shark, Little Shark by Anna Membrino, or On a Farm by Alexa Andrews. Kindergarten Reading Comprehension Assessment One of the easiest ways to assess reading comprehension in kindergarten students is theÃ Informal Reading Inventory, also known as a Qualitative Reading Inventory. The IRIÃ allowsÃ instructors to individually assess a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s fluency, word recognition,Ã vocabulary,Ã comprehension, and oral reading accuracy. Kindergarten students should be assessed in the middle and at the end of the school year. Children are usually asked to read a passage aloud.Ã Reading fluency rate is determined by how many correct wordsÃ a student reads in one minute. Oral reading accuracy can help an instructor determine a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s reading level and ability to decode words. Comprehension can be checked by asking questions about the passage or asking the student to summarize what he read. Vocabulary is assessed through open-ended questions about words in the passage. Model Good Reading Habits It is important for children to see thatÃ their parents and teachersÃ value reading. Teachers can help by setting aside 15 to 20 minutes for silent reading each day. During this time, students and their teacher choose books to read silently. Parents can help by ensuring that children see them reading at home. Teachers and parents should read aloud to students regularly so that children can hear the role that reading rate and voice inflection play in fluency. Choose books that are above the level that children could read on their own to expose them to new vocabulary. Parents should make bedtime stories part of their nightly routine. Ask Questions Improve kindergarten studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ reading comprehension by asking questions. Before reading, look at the bookÃ¢â¬â¢s title and illustrations and ask students to make predictions about what will happen. During the story, ask questions about what is going on, what students think will happen next, or what they would do if they were the main character. After the story,Ã ask questions about what happened, how the story made the children feel, or why they think the book ended the way it did. Help Kindergartners Make Connections Helping students make connections is another effective technique for improving comprehension. Give students a foundation for what theyÃ¢â¬â¢re reading. Talk or watch a video about unfamiliar experiences before reading about them. Help childrenÃ connectÃ stories to their own experiences. When reading a book about a boy getting a new puppy, for example, talk to students about who has a pet. Ask where they got their pet and how they chose it. Teach Comprehension Strategies Teach children what to do when they donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand what theyÃ¢â¬â¢re reading. Instruct students to: Reread the passageLook atÃ the pictures for cluesThink about what happened before or read what happens next If those tips donÃ¢â¬â¢t help, students may be reading a book that is too difficult. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t forget the five-finger rule. Build Vocabulary Increasing a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s vocabulary in an excellent way to improve their reading comprehension. Give students confidence in their budding reading skills by definingÃ unfamiliar words ahead of time so that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t lose the meaning of the story. Teach them toÃ infer the meaning of a new word from the context of the story. For example, if a student reads, Ã¢â¬Å"The tiny ant goes in the little hole,Ã¢â¬ he may be unfamiliar with the word tiny but recognize little from his sight word list. Teach kids to ask themselves questions such as, Ã¢â¬Å"What could go through a little hole? Would it be something small or something big?Ã¢â¬ By reading the word in context, kids can learn to infer that tiny must mean small or little. Encourage Visualization Teach children to create mental images, often called brain movies or mind movies, when they are reading. Ask them to draw a picture of what is going on or what the character is thinking or feeling. Instruct them to use theirÃ five senses to picture the action of the story in their mind. Envisioning the action of a story is a fun way to improve studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ reading comprehension.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
It was five minutes past mid-night, Jude was sitting on his computer working on an essay that professor Engle assigned for all of his American History classes. Then suddenly, a video message appeared on his laptop. He was shocked to see his girlfriend tied up in a chair and crying with mascara running down her face. A guy with a mask showed up on the screen, and said: Ã¢â¬Å"If you want to see this pretty face again, you have to show me that you are willing to use your time and brain to get her back.Ã¢â¬ Jude asked why he was doing this, and the guy simply replied, Ã¢â¬Å"You can say I have a sick obsession with kidnapping girls and putting their boyfriends to the test.Ã¢â¬ The video disappeared in a blink of an eye. Jude was still in shock, not sure ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦He walked to a computer and accessed the website that was created. His first task was to find a map that indicated where the state of Palestine is located. Luckily, he knew where the maps were locat ed in the FAU library. Jude felt confident that the first task would be easy; he walked toward the maps, located at the back of the library past the reference collection and near the microfilms. There were so many cabinets that had all kinds of maps in them. He remembered that his history teacher might have mentioned that Palestine and the Middle East are connected in a way. He started reading the labels on each cabinet until he came across a cabinet labeled the Middle East, next to two computers that are used to see the information on microfilms. Jude got a little excited because he thought to there was no way he would not find a map with the country Palestine on it. He took out one map at a time and looked at each one carefully, however, he still had no luck finding a map that had Palestine written on it. He continued reading the labels on the cabinet until he saw a cabinet labeled Asia, and started looking at every map in it, but he had no luck. Jude got so frustrated with himsel f; he took a deep breath and started to brainstorm what his next step should be. He thought to himself what can I use in this library that can be helpful, and the first thing that crossed his mind was the government documents. Which were
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Give a discussion on the devils bait? Answer: The story reveals the facts related to the Morgellons disease and the narrator meets with the people affected by this disease. Moreover, the narrator starts suspecting her body regarding getting infected with the disease. The interesting fact is that this essay highlights the different kinds of the reality which are considered for prerequisites compassions. A question arises that whether people should show empathy for the people suffering from the disease. In the third grade, the narrator revealed that once she had the worm from the Bolivia. The essay reflects the two most important elements of the essay i.e., the literal and the symbolically (Jamison, 2013). The symbolical element highlights that whether empathy should be shown or not. It was really hard for the narrator to signify that whether a person is legitimate or the person is just crazy. The disease affected the reliability of the narrator. The narrator describes the pain of the other people and she starts feeling the pain o f those people. The journey of the narrator takes her to the desired conclusion that whether it is wrong of trusting the suffering of the o0ther people but not trusting the desired source (Pietrangelo, 2014). The essay highlights the suffering of the people and the narrator clarifies the differences between the Human and the Humane. Moreover, the narrator describes the pain of the other people in a way as if she is feeling the pain of the other people. References Jamison, L. (2013).The Devils Bait. The Devils Bait: The Devils Bait. Pietrangelo, A. (2014). The ferroportin disease.Clinical Liver Disease, 3(5), pp.98-100.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
One Man's Struggle To Stay Alive One Man's Struggle to Stay Alive Over the years John Sidney McCain, the white haired Senator from Arizona has survived many things. He has endured three plane crashes, a firestorm at sea, and a North Vietnamese prison camp, to emerge as a major player in the national political scene. The Vietnam War had a significant impact on Senator McCain. McCain spent five and a half years in North Vietnamese prisons, thirty-one months in solitary and was brutally tortured. Yet, almost immediately upon his release in 1973, he began putting Vietnam behind him. This lighthearted man has rarely lost sight of what he has called ?the shadow of Vietnam? (Timberg 12). Due to his continuing contributions to the United States, John McCain has become a true American hero and would make an excellent president for our country. . John McCain grew up in a family rich with Navy heritage. John McCain's grandfather was one of the navy's greatest commanders and led the strongest aircraft carrier force of the Third Fleet. McCain's father who was a submarine commander during World War II was equally distinguished by heroic service in the navy. Both McCain's father and grandfather rose to the rank of four-star admiral, making the McCain's the first family in American history to achieve that distinction. John McCain III followed in his grandfather and father's footsteps when he entered the U.S. Navy Academy in 1951. McCain struggled during his four years at the academy, but in June 1954, he graduated with 899 other young men. The Class of '58 had been whittled down by 25 percent. Of the 899 who endured the four years at the U.S. Navel Academy, John McCain was one of them, standing fifth from the bottom. The Navel Academy was very rigid for McCain, but even as a teenager, he showed presidential traits, perseverance b eing one of them. This feature is extremely important for John McCain if he wants to be the man to lead our country. John McCain continued to press on and in August 1958, McCain reported to flight school at Pensacola were he would begin his Navy career. Little did McCain know that his quick thinking would be tested not just once, but three times during his flying. One Saturday morning, as McCain was practicing landings, his engine quit and his plane plunged into Corpus Christi Bay. McCain survived with minor injuries but that would be his first of many brushes with death (Norman). The fall of 1965, John McCain had his second encounter with death where again, his quick thinking would save him. He was flying solo to Philadelphia to watch the Army-Navy game when his engine died. At one thousand feet, he ejected, landing on a deserted beach moments before the plane slammed into a clump of trees. McCain's perseverance and quick thinking has been tested and both times, he has shown true leadership qualities that every president needs (Norman). Once again, John McCain's skills would be tested. On July 29, 1967, he was where he wanted to be, on the flight deck of a Navy Aircraft. Before taking off to bomb Hanoi, McCain was going through his preflight checks, when a stray voltage from his plane blew apart the exterior fuel tank on McCain's bomber. Two hundred gallons of highly flammable gas streamed onto the flight deck engulfing everything in its path. McCain still strapped in the cockpit of his plane was surrounded in a gulf of flames. McCain, quickly jumping out of his plane onto the flight deck, escaped just before the burning fuel set fire to his plane. When it was all over, 134 men were dead, missing, or injured. McCain and the other pilots in his squadron lost all hope in fighting the Vietnam War. All hope was restored when another Air Carrier had been losing pilots and where looking for volunteers to fill the ranks. John McCain signed on to the new squadron (Timberg). John McCain's new assignment had finally come on October 26, 1967, when he took flight to Vietnam to bomb a power plant in Hanoi. Little did McCain know that Hanoi was now more heavily defended against air attacks than any other city
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
All the Kings Men essays All the Kings Men, by Robert Penn Warren is the story of a political icon in the 1930's. Rising from a poverty-stricken home to become governor of the state was not an easy life. Politics is a game of willpower and manipulation, not ideals (Warren 30). Willie puts forth a great deal of energy into keeping his powerful political position. By the use of blackmail and bullying, he coaxes his enemies into submission. His most fearful enemy is Sam MacMurfee; he constantly tries to pull Willie down off his political throne. The author puts emphasis on the fact that Willie starts out a good, honest man opposed to a system filled with blackmail, bribery, and trickery; but he is ultimately forced to master it. All the Kings Men is also the story of Jack Burden, Willie's right hand man. Jack turns away from his good-natured upbringing, joins Willies rough group of allies and hired thugs, and just walks away from all his past interests. Jack's job is to use his gifts as a historical researcher to dig up information and secrets of Willie's enemies. Jack struggles with the idea of responsibility. He attempts to avoid the idea that actions have consequences, and individuals are responsible for those consequences. Jack considers himself to be an idealist. Willie makes a point to be in control of every situation. From the time his son gets a woman pregnant to his political dynasty. Jack's first love, Anne Stanton, begins an affair with Willie. When her brother Adam finds out, he murders Willie in a rage. That would be the only situation in which Willie had no control. After the death of Willie, Jack removes himself from politics. He rethinks his idea that no individual can be responsible for the consequences of their actions; and eventually marries Anne Stanton. An important theme in the novel was reputation. Being a politician, Willie was constantly in the public eye, and greatly concerned with how the people perceived him....
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Live And Let Die essays In Live And Let Die, written by Ian Fleming, the main character James Bond is a British special agent. In the novel James Bond investigates a serious cover up of gold coins that are used to fund a Russian agency called SMERSH. Bond uses his spy skills to catch the bad guys in the end. The author, Ian Fleming, uses his past experiences to develop Bond as a womanizing character that lives in a world govern by the present values of society at that time period. In the novel Bond starts his mission off in New York and he is briefed on what is going on. James finds out that there are gold coins showing up in different pawn shops located in the big apple. These coins are from a sunken ship in the Caribbean, and are being pawned off in Harlem. In every account a black man pawned the booty. While 007 is in New York he finds out that a black gangster named Mr. Big is behind the gold coin scandal. James also finds out that these gold coins are being used to fund the Russian SMERSH agency. So Bond decides to go to Jamaica where Mr. Big is using a exotic fish company as a front to his gold coin cover up. Bond eventually solves the case and catches Mr. Big. In Live And Let Die, Ian Flemings experiences in the military are evident. Ian grew up in a military family that earned their social stripes with service and blood. (Cork, Internet) His military background explains why his main character, 007, is a military man. In WWII Ian served as a British Navel Intelligence Officer. (Internet Two) Fleming schemed, plotted, and carried out dangerous missions. (Cork, Internet) This is why Bonds military character is written in such good description. Ian used his life experiences and turned them into a character, and used that character in his novel. Bond is basically Ians description of himself. Ian turned his life into a book, which became one of the most famous spy books ev...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Is it our future already written - Essay Example This paper highlights my own experiences and how I decided to shape the way I wanted it to be. This paper is comprised of different sections (Sagor 2005). It is fundamental note that this study was located in my school. I interviewed my room who gave very pertinent information about me.This research targeted people that were close to me. For instance, it targeted my friends, roommate and family members. These people were interviewed as per the questionnaire and interview schedule prepared. This study applied simple sampling techniques. This type of sampling allows an equal chance for each individual to be picked for interview. This technique of sampling also allows the respondents to be picked just by chance. This type of sampling technique was selected because the study dealt with a larger population. I randomly selected my friends who I interviewed. The sample size of this research was 10 participants. I targeted 3 people from my family, and 7 people from my school. These participa nts were interviewed as per the interview schedule. Let me also note that I interviewed my room at night when we were resting after studies. I interviewed my family on Sundays. Let me note that I learned a lot from the participants. It is true to note that our lives are always marred with challenges that me it difficult for us to look in to life in a more positive way. Personally, I have experienced many challenges. I have to admit that the challenges that I experienced in life made me stronger. My roommate narrated during the interview how he suffered while still young. It was painful to hear her say that her parents separated while he was just five years. He adapted to the situation to live in a single parenthood family. This showed me clearly that when we look in to life in a more positive manner life would always be good. Let me also highlight that my friend highlighted that we should avoid being negative in life. During the interview, she told me that we should not always opt t hat the worst will happen. We should always opt for the best to happen. I have to note that it is also important to desist from negative behaviors to be positive in life. My mother used to remind me to desist from bad behaviors like being late in school, and being lazy. I have always grown up knowing that laziness is not good. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t remember too much about that night. I only remember that Carlos and I were at an Italian restaurant, very gourmet, beautiful, comfortable, and classy. Then, we went to the movies, and we had an ice cream in my favorite ice cream shop located 2 blocks away my home. I got the nocciola and lime flavor and Carlos got the chocolate one. I remember we end it up laughing and sharing our ice creams. Then, I woke up, and I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t remember anything more, as I recounted my dream to my best friend Connie in a rainy night of October 2009. I had never dreamed of a specific person before, and I was trying to solve the mystery with Connie. After talkin g with her, no closer to an answer, I received a message: Ã¢â¬Å"Hi, this is Carlos. I haven't seen you for a while until yesterday in the Model of United Nations. I remember when we used to go out every weekend, so it was very nice to see you last night. By the wayÃ¢â¬ ¦how is everything doing in your Model of United Nation? If you need any help, I can help you in whatever you need. Sorry if IÃ¢â¬â¢m taking this too long.Ã¢â¬ It was a big coincidence that after I saw him in the Model of United Nations, I dreamed about him, and then, he texted me. There is
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Global warming - Essay Example With the influx of urbanization, pollution from engines, industries, and companies needs to be stringently regulated. Such has become an advocacy for IntergovernÃ mental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), and the United NaÃ tions Environment Programme (UNEP) since 1988 with civil society around the globe (IPCC, 2007). The issue deserved serious concern as global temperature increased from 3Ã ° to 5Ã ° C Ã¢â¬â and might reached at 5.4Ã ° to 9Ã ° Fahrenheit in 2100. The sea level has also risen at 25 meters and is projected to reach 82Ã¢â¬ by the year 2100 (IPCC, 2007). Ã The rise of global temperatures brought along some drastic changes in land and oceans as thermal expands at the ocean and the rapid melting of polar and Antarctic regions (IPCC, 2007; Craven, 2012). Ecologists likewise observed that precipitation patterns are changing with disasterÃ¢â¬â¢s increase of numbers and intensities. Experts posit that the erratic increase of frequency, duration, and intensity of climatic outburst caused so much flooding, prolonged drought season, severe heat waves, and changes in weather patterns (IPCC, 2007; Craven, 2012). The global warming cause negative impact to agriculture too as yields became poor; more glacial retreat, reduced summer period; and brought extinction of some species (IPCC, 2007; Craven, 2012). Health experts also argued that global warming also espoused malaria and other diseases in areas where these have been quelled before (IPCC, 2007). Global warming is a consequence of both manmade actions and astronomical developments influencing the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface (Craven, 2012). In the last decades, people have increasingly devastated ecology with pollution, logging, mining, and other resource related extraction. This is further aggravated with the recent phenomenon when the sun reached its ripening period thus producing some C-flares,
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Symbolic Debate in AI versus Connectionist - Competing or Complementary - Essay Example If the aim of human-oriented Artificial Intelligence is to develop common sense, an extreme example of the purely symbolic approach is to be seen in the Cyc project. Here, common-sense rules inferred from the everyday world are hard-coded into the system such that it will be able to handle any type of situation. And it is in this Ã¢â¬Å"extremely symbolicÃ¢â¬ approach that the worst failures of that approach will probably be seen: forget one fact, and the system crashes, with nothing to lean back on.On the other hand, best-suited to the connectionist approach are models of the brain at the micro-level. The brain is, after all, a neural networkÃ¢â¬âliterally. The problem here is that we get a working model, but with a very little description of what is actually going on inside, and the question begs to be asked (by connectionists, of course): why model it if it cannot be explained?The natural thought is that there must be some way the two systems can Ã¢â¬Å"co-operate.Ã¢â¬ Co nsider an interesting problem, one that may seem far-fetched but which is good enough to serve as an example: that of nonsense translation, as in Ã¢â¬Å"English French German Suite,Ã¢â¬ quoted in GÃ ¶del, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (Douglas Hofstadter, 1979, page 366). Here, a translation into German by Robert Scott of Lewis CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s Jabberwocky is presented. The English stanzaÃ¢â¬â¢Twas brillig, and the slithy tovesÃ¢â¬ ¦All mimsy were the borogoves,And the mome raths outgrabe.Ã¢â¬ Gets translated into the German asÃ¢â¬Å"Es Brillig war. Die schlichten TovenÃ¢â¬ ¦Und aller-mÃ ¼msige BurggovenDie MÃ ¶hmen RÃ ¤thÃ¢â¬â¢ ausgraben.Ã¢â¬ Consider Ã¢â¬Å"outgrabeÃ¢â¬ : how would one Ã¢â¬Å"translateÃ¢â¬ it into German? It turns out that Ã¢â¬Å"outÃ¢â¬ is Ã¢â¬Å"ausÃ¢â¬ in German, and Ã¢â¬Å"grabÃ¢â¬ sounds perfectly German; add to that the common German Ã¢â¬Å"-enÃ¢â¬ suffix and one gets Ã¢â¬Å"ausgraben.Ã¢â¬ Similar principles apply to the translation of all the nonsense words here.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Night by Elie Wiesel | Book Analysis 1. In the book, the narrators mentioning of the Exile of Providence and the destruction of the Temple at the beginning of the story foreshadows the events in this section of Night by showing the strong religious ties of the story to God and indicates the removing of the Jews from their homeland. The author was leaving small subtle hints that Jews were beginning to be deported to concentration camps. But the Exile of Providence and the destruction of the Temple both have very religious meanings, foreshadowing the themes and importance of God and religion faith that take place in the story. The Exile of Providence is a condition in some Jewish belief systems that humans will be delivered from evil and returned to Gods care. In the beginning of the book, Elie says that at night, he goes to weep over the destruction of the temple, which is a part of mourning in the Judaism belief. The Exile of Providence and the destruction of the Temple foreshadowed that Elie Wiesel had a very strong be lief in God and had a great interest in Judaism. But it also showed that God would play a very important role in Elies life. As Elies experiences of the holocaust progressed, Elie begins to question God, show signs of doubt, and lose faith in God. God and religion would also be the hope for prisoners in the concentration camps, helping them endure the suffering. 2. Using eyes to describe a person, at the beginning of the book, Elie describes how he likes Moishe the Beadles wide, dreamy eyes that gaze off into the distance. These eyes show that Moishe the Beadle has great wisdom, hope, and is a very great being. He seems to be a very humble and modest man. His eyes might also suggest his strong belief in God and hope to get past the holocaust, pain, death, and suffering. But in contrast, when Moishe De Beadle returns from his horrible experience and his witnessing of death and the killing of infants, his eyes are empty and hollow. His eyes no longer show joy, dreaminess, and the hope. Moishe De Beadle no longer even mentions God. His eyes show that he is overwhelmed by fear and horror and that he might have lost all hope. 3. The reason I think Elie Wiesel decided to wait a decade before attempting to express his experience in words was because that he was too afraid to speak out at the time. But I believe that even if Elie Wiesel tried to speak out, his voice would have been silenced along with millions of others. To this day, voices such as Elie Wiesel and Anne Frank are some of the not-so-many and preserved voices we can hear. Even if Elie tried to speak out, there would be no one to listen to him. He could have been killed, beaten, and hurt in the concentration camps just for expressing his thoughts. But I still believe that what he did was wrong. The silence and the victimÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½s lack of resistance of what was happening was what allowed the holocaust to continue. Even it meant being killed or beaten, Elie should have tried loudly and boldly to speak of the horrors of the holocaust. It would be a very hard thing to do but it was the right thing to do. Elie had been controlled by fear and kept silent until the incident was all over. Unable to go back, Elie now speaks out. After his experience in the holocaust, Elie Wiesel lived on and spoke about it so that people could learn from the past to prevent history to repeat itself. He speaks of his memories and experiences so that the world can learn from its past mistakes. 4. Two examples of the theme, emotional death in the story is the way Mrs. Schachter behaves when her husband and two older sons were deported and when Moishe De Beadle escapes from the Galician forest, witnessing the deaths of many. Emotional death can easily allow the reader to understand how terrible the holocaust was and its horrors. Mrs. Schachter had lost her mind, crying and screaming hysterically. Moishe De Beadles eyes had become hollow and he had lost the will to live. Both were not dead yet but something inside them had died and they have lost hope of themselves. Two examples of the theme, self preservation vs. family commitment are Part 2 1. The prisoners recitation of the Kaddish prayer as they walk through Auschwitz conveys the theme of struggle to maintain faith by showing that the prisoners are beginning to realize the cruelty and evil of the holocaust. Recitation of the prayer may bring comfort for those who still believe in God. But the prisoners begin to doubt their faith. They wonder if God notices their pain or even cares. Reciting the prayer allows the prisoners to realize that the pain, suffering, and death has yet to be prevented by God. 2. The motif of night is used to explain Eliezers experiences in the camp because Elie Wiesels life could be easily compared to nighttime. At night, it is dark and frightening, just like Wiesels experiences in the camp. At night, there is no sunshine, no light. There is only darkness, just like the way life passed on for Elie Wiesel in those concentration camps. Elie Wiesel explained how he had lost track of time. Nighttime would come every day and the Jews would be afraid if they would live to go through the night and what would happen to them in the next hour. 3. A work of literature that I know that conveys a theme found in Night is a book I read called, The Hunger Games. It is a book about a teenage girl who is thrown into a game where she has to fight to the death against dozens of other teenagers, a show for the whole nation to watch. They both have themes of survival, self preservation, humanity, and hope. In Night, Elie Wiesel witnessed people fighting and beating one another over crumbs of bread and Jews beating and fighting each other for food. In the Hunger Games, contestants have to fight and kill each other until only one remains standing. Both books show the characters struggle against if they should go against humanity in order to save their own lives. Both books show how humans can be some cruel. Part 3 1. The statement, Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½Man raises himself towards God by the questions he asks Him.Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ Demonstrates the narratorÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½s struggle with faith of Rosh Hashanah by showing that Eliezer doubts GodÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½s justice and power, seeing that God does nothing to relieve the suffering in the Holocaust. On Rosh Hashanah, Elie refuses to pray, for he feels that God either does not care or cannot do anything about the horrors of the holocaust. Elie also begins to think that man is very strong, even greater than god. This behavior is entirely in contrast to ElieÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½s past interest in his Judaism faith. Elie has witnessed so much torture and death that he beings to question God. 2. An example of the theme, self preservation vs. family commitment, is when Mier, a boy killed his father on a train for a small piece of bread. He then found out that his father had saved a piece for him. Mier had lost sight of what was important of him and only cared about saving himself, killing his own father for food. He had become a person without a sense of humanity. An example of the theme, emotional death, is how Elie feels after his fatherÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½s death. Nothing matters to him anymore since his fatherÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½s death. Elie no longer thinks of anything but the desire to eat. He lives on, but really, he is no longer himself. His fatherÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½s death gives him great guilt and depression. He had ignored his fatherÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½s call when he was dying and thirsty, guilty how he had felt his father as a burden. He realized that he had lost what he had loved most. An example of the theme, struggling to maintain faith, is the day of Rosh Hashanah where Elie Wiesel is full of anger towards God, refusing to pray for he blames that God has been cruel and uncaring, allowing the suffering and pain to continue. An example of the theme, dignity in the face of inhuman cruelty, is when Juliek was surrounded by hundreds of dead and dying bodies, yet he still played his violin, something he loved. An SS officer had not allowed Juliek to play what he had wanted, Beethoven. The day of his death, although not allowed, he played Beethoven, showing his dignity. 3. Elie Wiesel struggles to live, but also having to care for his father where survival is unbearably difficult. Elie did love his father but to continuously help and care for his father made it harder for him to ensure his own survival. He tried his best not to lose sight of what was important to him, family. But in the end, Elies self preservation behavior took over his commitment to his father. Elie was afraid to get another blow to the head by the officer and ignored his father who was desperately calling out his name, thirsty and dying. With the death of his father, Elie felt that he was finally free at last, seeing his father as nothing but a burden. He feels that his father is better off dead than having to suffer. 4. Based on what I know about history and what Wiesel writes in Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½NightÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ about human nature is that we are all scared and frightened beings. We can be so selfish, greedy, and we desire so many things because we are human. Humans are so imperfect by nature. Humans have also done the most evil things possible, to such an extent that humans would kill one another. But I think by nature, humans are individual social beings. All humans have lied, been greedy, and have been frightened but humans are able to learn from their past mistakes. Compared to the times of the holocaust, human behavior has gradually improved. 4. I think it was an effective way how Wiesel devoted only a few lines to the events after his liberation. After his liberation, Elie wrote little but what he wrote had very great meanings. He wrote how when he looked into the mirror, a corpse was looking back at him. Elie Wiesel could never forget the look in his eyes as they gazed back at him. This short phrase made me, the reader, have to analyze and comprehend what I had just read. The words spoke for themselves, showing ElieÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½s great pain and sadness. I thought the ending was just enough to describe Elie WieselÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½s feelings. Something else that Wiesel might have done was explain how
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The Unsuspecting Hero of The Hobbit Our tendency to romanticize it notwithstanding, childhood is tough. It is not, primarily, the time of nonstop games and fun that we would all like to remember. Childhood is marked by fun and games, to be sure, but it is also marked by a feeling of powerlessness in the face of larger and older adults. These adults are in full control of nearly every aspect of children's lives. From when they go to bed to what they eat, children are allowed to make very few choices of any significance. Because they are smaller, younger, weaker, and less trusted to be able to make wise decisions than are adults, children can easily feel powerless or even unimportant in comparison with these adults. The Hobbit, J. R. R. Tolkien's classic of children's literature, features a protagonist who has to deal with the sense of powerlessness and inferiority that children can easily feel. Bilbo Baggins, the novel's diminutive hero, is dramatically smaller and several years younger than the thirteen dwarves whose adventure he shares. Indeed, the dwarves initially see him as a sort of a child who cannot possibly help them in their quest for treasure. Bilbo proves himself to be a true hero throughout the course of the novel, however, saving the dwarves' lives more than once and providing the secret to killing the dragon Smaug. Tolkien obviously meant for children to identify with Bilbo Baggins, and his heroics were clearly intended to bring pleasure on a far more personal level than the exploits of a superhuman hero such as Sir Lancelot. Indeed, it can be argued that by choosing to make Bilbo the smallest and youngest member of the party, Tolkien allows his child readers the pleasure of iden tifying directly with his her... ...t children are far more inspired by the triumphs of other children than they are by the triumphs of adults or even adolescents, and so he wrote about a character who does vindicate himself and mature, but who remains, for all of that, a child. Children who read this novel will still undoubtedly be treated as though they are incapable of fending for themselves, and they will still undoubtedly be terrified of things around them, but they will feel a sense of vindication whenever they think of Bilbo Baggins. After all, Bilbo proves that one can be brave, wise, and heroic despite the fact that one is a "mere" child. Works Cited Carter, Lin. Tolkien: A Look Behind "The Lord of the Rings." New York: Ballantine Books, 1969. Crabbe, Katharyn. J. R. R. Tolkien. New York: F. Ungar Pub. Co., 1981. Tolkien, J. R. R. The Hobbit. New York: Ballantine Books, 1965.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
When asking ourselves the question Ã¢â¬Ëwhat is childhood? Ã¢â¬â¢ and reading around the subject, it can be seen that there is no exact definition which can pinpoint an exact answer, this is because childhood is seen as socially constructed (McDowell, 2010). Continual varying ideas about children which has led to claims that childhood is a social construction highlights that childhoods are not the same everywhere and that while all societies acknowledge that children are different from adults, how they are different and what expectations are placed on them, change accordingly to the society in which they live (Greene et al, 2005). This highlights that it is not possible for childhood to be a biological state but is culturally specific and varies across time and location including taking into account economic factors (McDowell, 2010). This can be seen here in the contrast of how children are portrayed and look in western society compared to non-western. Children in Africa (non-western) Let the children play (Western) This view of social construction is supported in BronfenbrennerÃ¢â¬â¢s sociocultural model of development which highlights how different environmental systems impact human development. The interrelated systems help us recognise the different contexts which impact on childhood (McDowell. 2010) Aries (1962) claimed that in medieval society the idea of childhood did not exist as the child did not occupy a social status (Green et al, 2005). This is argued by Archard (1993) as cited in Green et al (2005) who had the belief that they just had different ideas about it. This contrasts with the western society view of today which places children at centre stage taking on the romantic discourse that children are and have always been pure and innocent and entitled to nurturing (Newman, 2004). A loving family This picture highlights how the western perspective sees childhood, placing the child as central importance. Ideas about children and childhood also differ between different sectors in society, professional bodies and government departments which have come to be manifested in social policies. An example of this is age restraints. Legal classification of childhood is the main way in which society attempts to regulate and define childhood (McDowell, 2010). Age restraints for events in life such as marriage, the right to vote or drink, the school leaving age, ages in which you are criminally responsible and the age of sexual consent have developed over time but various legal constraints give children or young people different levels of responsibilities or how they should control their own actions which vary globally (Greene et al, 2005). Cunningham (2006) believes that a child can cease to be one over time which relates to age limits and laws but we are always a child to our parents. Western society, in particular its social policies, tends to focus on what children will become, rather than childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s being. The focus is on what they will become in the future rather than the here? and? now of childhood (Morrow, 2011). In many developing world countries however, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s roles are very different. There is more crucial importance of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s labour to many household economies (Morrow,2011). In some countries, child labour is prevalent and, for many children, education has to fit around work commitments. This contrasts with the developed West, where childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s work has to fit around their education commitments. The priorities for children are different, and thus their Ã¢â¬ËchildhoodsÃ¢â¬â¢ are different. (Morrow, 2011). Overall it can be seen that there is no agreed definition of childhood without reference to the social perceptions within which it is experienced.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Hamlet and Ophelia. I DOUBT"Doubt thou the stars are five;Doubt that the sun doth move;Doubt truth to be a liar;But never doubt I Love."The attitude of Hamlet towards Ophelia is one of the greatest puzzles in the play. The exact nature of his feelings for Ophelia is left ambiguous. As most critics have agreed, Hamlet did once love Ophelia deeply and sincerely but he ceased to do so. Why? How can we explain Hamlet's conduct towards Ophelia throughout the play, his ruthlessness and savagery towards a gentle and inoffensive girl whom he had once loved so ardently?II LOVE IN HONOURABLE FASHIONOphelia herself gives testimony of Hamlet's genuine love towards her:"My Lord, he hath importun'd mewith LoveIn honourable fashion."He has approached her many times, with tenderness and holy vows of heaven as a testimony of his affection and honourable intentions. Her father, Polonius, advises her not to trust his vows, for they are brokers (Hamlet, I, iii, v.Hamlet127) - Lord Hamlet is out of her sphere; Polonius orde rs her to see no more of him. Her brother, Laertes is warning her that Hamlet's love is but"... a fashion and a toy in bloodA violet in the youth of primy nature,Forward, not permanent, sweet, not lasting,The perfume and suppliance of a minute;No more."But a real "material" proof is put before us - a love-letter that Hamlet wrote to Ophelia. The letter is written in the conventional lover's stile and it is a real outbreak of passion. There is no doubt he loves her:"O dear Ophelia, I am ill at these numbers,I have not art to reckon my groans: but that ILove thee best, O most best, believe it. Adieu.Thine evermore most dear...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Porphyrias Lover, My Last Duchess and To His Coy Mistress Essay Example Porphyrias Lover, My Last Duchess and To His Coy Mistress Paper Porphyrias Lover, My Last Duchess and To His Coy Mistress Paper and he is now full of love and happiness due to a beautiful damsel fleeing from the storm and seeking shelter. This poem is inclusive of the weather and another character unlike My Last Duchess which includes only one character, the rich man. This poem may be less egotistical but still just as sinister, unpleasant and inclusive of death. He falls deeply in love with Porphyria and wishing that time would stand still he took her hair in one long string, and wound it Three times her little throat around, And strangled her. Unlike seeing her as an object, he sees her as a wonderful woman, on a higher level, but the twist is whilst they are in such deep love with each other he kills her. This may be seen as selfish as in the last poem but she loved him too so in his twisted mind it was fine to keep this moment where they love each other forever, and to do this he kills her. He still is in just as much praise of her as before and believes she is such a brilliant woman. Like the last poem this is sinister, but is very passionate. To His Coy Mistress is also very passionate, but is not cold like the others. It is more for comic purposes as the way in which the man talks to the mistress to get her in bed with him is comic. My vegetable love should grow Vaster than empires, and more slow; An hundred years should go to praise. He rudely and comically uses vegetable love as a metaphor for his penis erecting and then says how he wants to praise her. The first stanza therefore is all about the lustful man saying that if there was time enough he would spend it praising her. This is all very comic and would seem so to the coy lady. I believe it would make her laugh and blush and the man to her would seem witty and appealing. However, unlike in the last poem where the woman is seen as a wonderful woman who is on a higher level, here he is trying to reduce her and bring her down to his level and in to his bed, literally. It retains however the passion. This passion is in the form of lust and Porphyrias Lover is more passion in the form of love, however disturbing it may be. In conclusion love in these poems is portrayed in a number of different ways. My Last Duchess is very cold poem where the woman is objectified and there is a distorted view of love. There is also little passion shown. Porphyrias lover is quite a passionate poem, which portrays the woman as respectable and brilliant. However the love becomes sinister as in My last Duchess. To his Coy Mistress is much more light hearted than the others and is comic. The poem is quite passionate, but lust is the form of passion and that is not true love, but a love that like in My Last Duchess objectifies the woman. Also the women in the two poems are seen as less important as in Porphyrias Lover which represents the woman as the most important thing in the world. Therefore Browning poems are more sinister and different to Marvell which is more like Donne as their poems are more co mic and lustful.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Ceramics - Essay Example This section contains a fine selection of tiles and large scale ceramics showing the architectural ceramics that existed in the 13th century to those in the present day. The tiles displayed are from countries such as Portugal Netherlands and the Islamic world which have great history on architectural ceramics.2 This gallery forms the greatest part of the Victoria and Albert museum ceramics section and it is in this room where you find Asian and Middle East ceramics that existed before the 1800. The collection is Brobdingnagian and is displayed on the walls according to the place of origin, time of manufacture and the technique used.3 This section contains the modern day ceramics that have been manufactures in the 20th century. The large influential companies of ceramic production such as the Royal Copenhagen and the Wedgwood have a lot of products in display. The history of ceramics dates back eight thousand years ago and the first ceramics were first made by the Chinese. They constructed earthenware ceramics using the porterÃ¢â¬â¢s wheel technology and this is demonstrated by the terracotta ceramic carvings in the tomb of the Emperor Qin. Over the centuries ceramic production was improved by new technologies and styles the most important being tri-color stoneware of the Tang dynasty. During this period the ceramics began to be used for ornamentation functions. As years went by, the celadon style was innovated and it brought about the technology of making elegant shapes and decorations. During the song dynasty, ceramics made of whiteware became popular and helped the Chinese thrive in ceramic trade.4 An advancement of the song dynasty was the blue and white porcelain that were created in the Yuan dynasty and was characterized by the glasslike finish on whitish clay bodies. The Qing period that occurred between 1644 and 1911 was the mos t innovative since it brought about the multicolored porcelain designs that are popular in the
Friday, November 1, 2019
Criminal Evidence - Essay Example For physical evidence it can be the weapon used to commit the crime for instance murder weapons if the crime was murder. DNA samples are also another form of physical criminal evidence as well as video footage. Criminal evidence can also be classified into either direct or circumstantial evidence. Direct evidence refers to evidence that is directly linking the defendant to the crime without leaving doubts for instance video footage. On the other hand, circumstantial evidence is evidence that suggests that the defendant committed the crime he or she is being accused of for instance a vehicle fitting description of a witness (Andrews, 1987). Both direct and circumstantial evidence are both acceptable in a criminal case in determining the verdict. None can be said to be more reliable than the other based on the argument that even direct evidence can be made to look like circumstantial evidence (Andrews, 1987). The major difference in the two type of evidence is the motive. While direct evidence is geared towards linking the defendant directly to the crime, circumstantial evidence links him or her indirectly. When a crime is reported, the police rush to the crime scene and secure the place as they look for evidence. They search the whole place and secure the necessary evidence which is then presented at the time of trial. Criminal evidence can also be obtained in court at the time of trial based on the confession made by the witnesses (Andrews, 1987). Moreover, when the defendant remains silent or does not respond to the question they are asked, the silence can be used as evidence to prove that he or she is guilty. For circumstantial evidence in most cases it is obtained in court when the plaintiff proves that the defendant had prior motive of committing the crime. For evidence to be accepted in court, it has to be valid. Evidence that can be rejected in court includes hearsay whereby the evidence is based on what
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
The Benefits Of Diversity To British Society And As To How Such A Diverse Society May Cause Its Own Tension And Conflict - Essay Example The migration of people into Britain including work permit holders in 2003 was 119000. When the increase in the population was 2.2 million, 1.14 million was from abroad. Birmingham, Bradford, Leicester and Oldham have Pakistanis and Indians. French, Portuguese, Greeks, Poles and Zimbabweans make up smaller proportions of the foreign- born. However when the second generation who are citizens are considered, the number just swells (Wood et al, 2006, p. 2). The debate on the diversity issue is an ongoing one. Originally the issues dwelled on how many people Britain could accommodate as new citizens. The conservative right viewed immigration as a threat to the national perspective (Banting and Will, 2004). Tensions are possible in 2 situations: the Ã¢â¬Å"heterogeneity/redistributionÃ¢â¬ tension and the recognition/ redistribution. In the first, social policies are difficult to implement because of the difficulty in eliciting trust and national solidarity among the ethnic groups or different races. Occasionally the multiculturalism policies increase the tension between diversity and social solidarity. Both reduce the support for redistribution. A British sociologist, T.H.Marshall, believed that citizenship must possess a feeling of community and have the feelings of trust, reciprocity or mutual obligation. The immigrants having been awarded many social benefits called social citizenship, developed a national consciousness (1950, p.8) . Social capital is hindered by ethnicity issues. Trusting oneÃ¢â¬â¢s neighbours and getting involved in the social networks supports the capacity for collective action (Putnam, 2000). It is difficult to earn the trust of minorities when compared to the majority; trusting across racial differences is a challenge. However other factors like income, gender, age and social spending appear to score over ethnicity. The level of social spending in ethnic diversity depends on the amount of economic development, age distribution of the
Monday, October 28, 2019
Network Management System Essay A Network Management System is a combination of software and hardware which is used for monitoring and effective administration of a network. For any network which requires management of number of network tasks to be integrated in a single software solution, there is a need of effective and efficient planning. It is the task of the network management system to locate network support, keep a check on the activities and health of the network devices attached and provides exceptional handling mechanism in order to alert the administrator in cases of conditions which can hinder the performance of the network(Laudon Laudon,2007). NMS systems use many different kinds of protocols in accordance their usage for example one of the commonly used is SNMP protocol which allows the gathering of information to be simplified for the administrator and users over the network from the devices attached in accordance to the network hierarchy. The NMS software are responsible for problem identification along with the exact source of the problem and provide effective solutions in order to prevent the problem from effecting the performance of the network. The NMS are also responsible for collecting the device data and numbers in terms of statistics to keep a log of the performance of the network. This usually includes a library of protocols which help the administrator in the management of the network through the Network Management System software. For to make sure there is a streamlined management of the network, every network is assigned a network manager. The network manager is responsible for monitoring the activities, methods which help the network running which includes the procedures which are usually defined for every specific network and lastly, the use of tools which the network administrator/manager is well equipped with in order to control monitor and use in terms of exceptional handling over the network. The operation of the network manager is to deal with keeping the network up and running smoothly. This includes the task of finding out any problem and rectifying it in time to make sure all systems over the particular network are not affected by the downtime of the network. Maintenance of the network involves proper measures and preventive procedures and measures for the network to be running smoothly such as the task of adjusting device configuration parameters for systems on the network(Laudon Laudon,2007). A management information base (MIB) is defined as a virtual database which is used for management of the network activities over a communication network. They are often related with the SNMP protocol commonly known as Simple Network Management Protocol. it is commonly used to pass on to a meticulous subset, more appropriately referred to as MIB-module. Items in the MIB are distinct by means of a subset of Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN. 1) also known as Structure of Management Information Version 2 (SMIv2) RFC 2578 which performs the parsing for the MIB compiler on the network. The Remote Network Monitoring (RMON) for MIB was developed to sustain supervision and protocol scrutiny of the local area network. The unique versions centers on OSI Layer 1 and Layer 2 in sequence in Ethernet and Token Ring system. It is unmitigated by RMON2 which appends maintenance for the Network Layer and Application Layer monitoring and by SMON which has added support for switched networks. Probing helps the system to examine and evaluate the network consistently and thus, helps the network manager to keep the network agents in check and up and running. Ã¢â¬Å"The following diagram shows a reference architecture that Cisco Systems believes should be the minimal solution for managing a data network. This architecture includes a Cisco CallManager server for those who plan to manage Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP): The diagram shows how you would integrate the CallManager server into the NMS topology. Ã¢â¬ (CISCO, 2010). References: CISCO. (2010). NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: BEST PRACTICES WHITE PAPER . Retrieved July 13,2010 from http://www. cisco. com/en/US/tech/tk869/tk769/technologies_white_paper09186a00800aea9c. shtml Laudon Laudon, K C. , (2007), Management Information Systems. Pearson Education India
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Why and What I hope to achieve: I believe that the purpose of doing this is to allow me to demonstrate my understanding of Elastic potential energy. And the projectile concepts of the effect of changing potential into kinetic energy and for me to demonstrate my ability to apply elastic potential energy to a scientific investigation. What am I going to do and what will it prove: I am going to use an elastic band and release it from different tensions I will then measure how far it ‘flies’. Doing this will tell me the relationship between force, potential energy and kinetic energy. My Prediction: I predict that the further I pull the band back the further it will ‘fly’. This is based on the fact that the more tension involved means that the potential energy is greater therefore the kinetic/moving energy will also be greater. Variables: Force to pull the band back. This will be between 3 and 11 Newton’s. Equations: Distance = Speed Time Speed = Time Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Distance Time = Distance Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Speed I also have Equations for EPE in my research. Method: 1)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Attach an elastic band to the hook on the end of a Newton metre and stretch the band until the Newton metre reads three Newton’s 2)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Then Release the band and see how far it flies. 3)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Measure using a metre stick how far the band has travelled. 4)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Repeat this same test three time in order to gather and average later on. 5)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The repeat this test using forces of 5, 7, 9 and 11 Newton’s. 6)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Remember to repeat each test on each force three times. 7)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Then collect the mean average using the results you received from repeating each of the tests. Fair Test: I will make sure this is a fair test by: Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Using the same band each time Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Using the same height at which to release the band Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Repeat each test three times so that we gat a reasonable result and in the case of getting a ‘freak’ result I will repeat that test. Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Same place – Draught’s, heat Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Same angle when band is released Things to take into account: Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The band will ‘age’ therefore losing some of its elasticity and tension. Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã If it didn’t hit the ground it would probably go further. Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Use the same Newton metre and have the same person reading it. Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There might be a breeze of wind of some sort either flowing with the band or against it. Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Temperature of room Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Any possible obstructions or anything else that make effect the general momentum e.g. Doors opening windows being open or shut. Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Angle, position and height you release the band from.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
During the time in which she wrote Mrs Dalloway, on June 19, 1923, Virginia Woolf made a diary entry which expressed a key thought she intended to incorporate in the novel: Ã¢â¬ In this book, I have almost too many ideas. I want to give life and death, sanity and insanity. I want to criticise the social system, and show it at work, at its most intense. Ã¢â¬ While some critics have insisted that Virginia Woolf did not care about social values, her husband later said that she was profoundly interested in the social issues of the world around her. This is borne out in Mrs. Dalloway, which does not turn away from the social and political issues of her time. Her characters turn to politics, questioning the status quo and the social order in which they lived. Woolf largely addressed these issues indirectly, showing her views in her works without the authorial interpretation that might be found in a traditional novel; she leaves final judgement to her readers. Mrs Dalloway came at a time when many social critics in England questioned the prevailing ideology. Prior to the war, England had stood at the head of a great empire, upon which the sun never set. When the war ended, England counted herself among the victorious powers, but the horrific losses of the war had destroyed the imperial confidence. In the wake of the war, many people sought to break out of the old thinking to find some new way of understanding the world. In the opening sentence of the novel, Clarissa Dalloway proclaims her independence: Ã¢â¬Å"Mrs. Dalloway said she would buy the flowers herself. Ã¢â¬ (Woolf 3) She will do this because Lucy has so much work to do. First of all, Ã¢â¬Å" Mrs. DallowayÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Lucy. Ã¢â¬ Her maid has no last name, and her own name appends her to her husband. Further, while she feels she is taking on a part of the work that more properly is LucyÃ¢â¬â¢s, her Ã¢â¬Å"workÃ¢â¬ is only a matter of buying flowers. Woolf injects similar irony throughout the novel, following on the idea suggested in this very first sentence, theme of social commentary. In Mrs. Dalloway, Woolf shows the abiding superficiality of the social order of which Clarissa Dalloway is a member. Early in this section, Clarissa Dalloway thinks of Miss Kilman, a Communist whom she regards as callous, because she brought out guilt feelings in Clarissa: Miss Kilman would do anything for the Russians, starved herself for the Austrians, but in private inflicted positive torture, so insensitive was she, dressed in a green mackintosh coat. Year in and year out she wore that cost; she perspired; she was never in the room five minutes without making you feel her superiority, your inferiority; how poor she was; how rich you were; how she lived in a slum without a cushion or a bed or a rug or whatever it might be, all her soul rusted with that grievance sticking in it, her dismissal from school during the War Ã¢â¬â (Woolf, 12) Doris Kilman is critical to this novel. She is an outsider, someone below the DallowayÃ¢â¬â¢s class. In the mackintosh she wears almost as a uniform, she hates and resents them for the ease of their social graces, their wealth, and their class standing. She has been hired to tutor Miss Elizabeth Dalloway in history. While the Dalloways sought someone who could teach this subject Ã¢â¬Å"objectively,Ã¢â¬ in reality, she shows the meaning of Ã¢â¬Å"objectivityÃ¢â¬ : objectivity is built on objects, on the property that the rich have, and the poor do not. Miss Kilman covets what the Dalloways possess. She Clarissa DallowayÃ¢â¬â¢s vanity and deceit, Miss Kilman has become convinced that she deserve their money or social position more than they do. In truth, however, she herself is vain, a reverse snob whose mackintosh smelling of sweat is her ensign, proof of her poverty, proof that she belongs to the lower orders, without the cushions and rugs. But her disaffection for that life is clear. Oddly, Miss Kilman turns to religion, ostensibly for solace and peace. although she uses the religiosity as a weapon against Clarissa Dalloway. She puffs herself up, comparing her sufferings with those of Christ, who warned of those who pray loudly in the public square that they already have their reward. She is dogmatic and self-righteous, the sacred messenger of a new faith. Ironically, Clarissa fears males, and looks most fondly for the companionship of women. Miss Kilman is a greater threat than any man in her life. However, it is more the idea that Miss Kilman represents than the woman herself. She has brought her destructive, envious force into the Dalloway house. Her target her is Elizabeth, ClarissaÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter. Even in this campaign, Woolf shows us the sides of Miss Kilman she would want to conceal: in the restaurant scene her wolfs her food, gulping down the sugared cakes and chocolate eclairs, a symbol of what she would like to do to the Dalloways, ready to eat their beauty, youth, money, and class. As she stuffs food into her mouth, Woolf focuses on her hands, opening and closing, like the convulsive stretching of the claws of a predatory cat. In the end, Miss Kilman finds no solace for her life, her church having turned arid on her.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
If there is one word which describes the American health care environment during the last decade, that word is change. Professionals joining the health care industry during the 1990s will find little resemblance to the work environment their predecessors found a mere 10 years earlier. Physical therapy practice during the 1960s and 1970s was largely limited to three settings: the hospital, private practice and extended care institutions. Private practice followed the medical practice model and served primarily ambulatory outpatients. Hospital-based practice accounted for the majority of practice opportunities. Along with some limitations on professional autonomy, employment in hospital-based practice generally offered the greatest opportunities for variety in clinical practice. Literature Review Change is constant and usually affects an entire organization. Change sometimes can cause chaos and stress, but which must be acknowledged and dealt with in order to make an organization effective. Improving high-quality patient care is the most important issue for everyone in a physical health institution, and this improvement needs to remain a central focus of and the main reason for the change. Discussions with hospital executives reveal: There is a need for an action plan to meet the needs of a more culturally diversed population. Adverse patient care incidents are under-reported because there are different interpretations about what should be reported. The hospital has not been able to invest in training hospital staff on reporting requirements. There are no systematic report mechanisms in place. Further study on the case reveals that the peer review processes of the hospital are weak if not minimally compliant. The number of patient complaints about hospital care has been rising. Complaints are often complex, and may involve the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s other health care facilities, and health professionals, as well. Medication errors have been a major concern for the hospital this lately. Though deficiencies were cited, the potential for patient harm was not clearly identified. Still, it has important influences on the quality of care for the medical facility. Faith also noted that their premium cost are decreasing, and is becoming a significant concern for the hospital. The lack of clear and concise ethics guidelines for medical personnel, especially on issues requiring ethical decisions. Each group of stakeholders has somewhat different concerns. That is, each cares more about some aspects of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s activities and less about others. Customers. Many organizations say that they put the concerns of their customers or clients first. For U.S. companies, that often means improving the quality of the service while keeping costs in check. Interviews with the customers reveal that the health care organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s Teamwork Competency account illustrates that using teams to improve quality is one approach that organizations can use to address the concerns of customers. Employees. Many of the concerns that employees have today reflect changes in the structure of organizations and the fact that work is a major activity in their lives. How a company treats employees during times of change is a key issue raised by this company. Pay is another area of concern to employees. The desire to receive equal pay for equal work is among the most important of workplace issues, according to a national survey of 40,000 women. Owners and Shareholders. For many organizations, the concerns of ownersÃ¢â¬âthat is, taxpayers and contributorsÃ¢â¬âoften are essentially those of society at large. But for privately owned companies, and those whose shares are publicly traded, the concerns of ownersÃ¢â¬âthat is, shareholdersÃ¢â¬âmay be quite different from those of society in general. Most shareholders invest their money in companies for financial reasons. At a minimum, they want to preserve their capital for later use. Because the job of institutional investors is to make money by choosing which companies to put their investment in, their perspective on corporate issues is to make profit generation the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s top priority. As professional investors, these shareholders have considerable power to influence managementÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions. Physical therapy health care service product is a bundle of tangible and intangible benefits that satisfy patientÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. Factors as job design, role clarity, and autonomy affect employee attitudes, which in turn affect patient experience in the institution. These observations emphasize the need to look beyond the immediate and obvious aspects of satisfaction and to consider other aspects, which affect patient perception of their experience. In dealing with the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s problems with respect to organizational processes, ethics and communication issues, it must be considered from three perspectives: structure, process and outcome. To assure that the hospital services are being appropriately provided, each dimension of hospital care provision must be considered. Quality of Life has different meanings as compared to the other health-related subject matters. It is used to describe a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s health status, a description of how he perceives himself and his point of view about his life.Ã But Quality of Life Concept encompasses more than the health status or oneÃ¢â¬â¢s perception about self and life.Ã This concept analysis nursing paper serves to provide the most comprehensive definition about this concept and how it is used in medical terms at present. Quality of Life Concept has become an Ã¢â¬Å"impressive Ã¢â¬ËexplosiveÃ¢â¬â¢ trendÃ¢â¬ talked about by medical field professionals, published in journals, books and various quality life articles for the last 10 years now.Ã Within this period, its concept continues to evolve and has reached three phases. In the first phase, there is the formal assessment made and classified as Ã¢â¬ËphysicianÃ¢â¬â¢s judgment of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s healthÃ¢â¬â¢. In the second phase, the points of view of the patients were given focus and the tools used in the study were those applied from psycho-social fields. In the third phase, multi-dimensional questionnaires were adopted and the concept of Quality of Life and health status begin to have different meanings (Apolone and Mosconi, p.66, 1998). Today, the trend continues to evolve as patient-oriented measures are applied and studied from functional disability scales to spiritual quality of life and economic measures. It is also a lot of other possible factors that have effects on a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s perception about what quality of life is in relation to his health.Ã The patientÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view in quality and effectiveness is taken into consideration and is treated as a more comprehensive humanistic approach that determines what to him is quality of life (Apolone and Mosconi, p. 68, 1998). Definition of Quality of Life When we speak about quality of life in laymanÃ¢â¬â¢s terms, it literally pertains to a number of definitions. It connotes with standard of living, available resources or conditions that tell about either the comforts or discomforts of life and such other identifiable meaning and perception about an ideal life.Ã There are many indicators about what quality of life a patient can perceive and most of these indicators depend variably on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural values. Defining Quality of Life for the purpose of this nursing concept paper is variable because it pertains to a Ã¢â¬Å"subjective experienceÃ¢â¬ . Hence, it can not be measured with Ã¢â¬Å"object indicators.Ã¢â¬ Ã Being the case, according to Skevington, studies show that the Ã¢â¬Å"best person to assess quality of life is arguably the individual himselfÃ¢â¬ (Skevington, par. 4, 1999). When questions are asked to a patient and he, in turn, answers the questions, the medical professional likely gets a limited clinical success in the study of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s history because of limited information.Ã He is unable to get the necessary data that may be of help in assessing the health condition of the patient.Ã Hence, there is a need to come up with a good quality-of-life measure that will enable health and interventions to be properly evaluated. The World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, in collaboration with the WHOQOL Group, designed an instrument called WHOQOL-100 that is used in Ã¢â¬Å"multinational clinical trials for the evaluation of quality-of-life outcomes during all types of health care interventions like surgery, counseling and medication.Ã¢â¬ (Skevington, par.1, 1999).Ã Ã It is useful also for making cross-cultural function about perceived quality of life relating to health and at a one-to-one level, in improving communications between doctors and their patients in the consulting room (Skevington, par. 1, 1999). The WHOQOL has up come with such instrument and made it as comprehensive as possible to reach out to various global dimensions that are workable internationally. Moreover, it is intended for use by persons with chronic diseases, informal caregivers and people living in highly stressful situations. WHO defines health as a Ã¢â¬Å"state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmityÃ¢â¬ .Ã On the other hand, the WHOQOL Group defines Quality of Life as Ã¢â¬Å"an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of their position in life, in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live, and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns (Sousa).Ã It is so broad a concept that it affects the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s physical health, psychological state, level of independence, and social relationships with his environment in a very complex way.Ã In addition to this definition, WHOQOL Group has added the sixth domain to the list, which is Ã¢â¬Å"spirituality, religion, and personal beliefs.Ã¢â¬ (Skevington, par 5, 1999). Furthermore, the WHOQOL 100 is an instrument that is applied to heterogeneous cross-section of sick and well people in order to examine its internal consistency reliability, construct validity , and discriminant power (Skevington, par. 1999).. Concept of Quality of Life in Health Care The Quality of Life came about when the disciplines of sociology and psychology became an issue related to health care. It has emerged into a larger issue when technological advances were aimed at increasing life span. Quality of Life has become a means to guide a patient in deciding on whether to pursue a treatment or not for his or her ailment.Ã According to clinicians, Health-related Quality of Life is an appropriate focus for a patient who has a disease or who is ill, and whose aspects in life become health-related (Haas, p. 730, 1999). A)Ã Ã Ã Defining Attributes of Quality of Life. The Walker and AvantÃ¢â¬â¢s 1995 method of concept analysis of Quality of Life took note of the various characteristics or critical attributes recurring in the process of their studies and they are grouped according to four recurring themes.Ã The first theme is the Ã¢â¬Å"multi-dimensional and dynamic nature of the QOL.Ã Authors have stressed that QOL is a multi-dimensional concept considering that it is Ã¢â¬Å"based on values; is dynamic, ever changing and depends largely on the context in which it is measuredÃ¢â¬ (Haas, p. 733, 1999). The second theme is that QOL includes an assessment.Ã In this case, the authors include words such as response, appraisal, measure, experience and assessment in defining and using QOL (Haas, p. 733, 1999).Ã The third theme is centered on the subjective nature of QOL. Grouped within this theme are words like perception, well-being, and satisfaction. (Haas, p. 733, 1999). The fourth and final theme recognizes the objective nature of QOL, with authors using Ã¢â¬Å"behavior, functioning, and environment as measures of QOL.Ã¢â¬ (Haas, p. 733, 1999). These defining attributes were sourced from the definitions and use of QOL. It mainly shows that QOL is indeed an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s current life circumstance. It further shows that it is multi-dimensional in nature and in being so, is based on values and is dynamic. It is also composed of both subjective and/or objective indicators. Finally QOL is subjectively measured by persons capable of self-evaluation.Ã (Haas, p. 733, 1999) (B) Congruence of the Concept with the Assumptions and Other Concepts within the Model/Theory. The QOL Model was formulated to provide a measure that takes into consideration both the components and determinants of health and well being that are consistent with the concept of Quality of Life. The QOL Model or Profile emphasizes on the personÃ¢â¬â¢s physical, psychological and spiritual functioning and his connections with his environments as well as opportunities for maintaining and enhancing skills (The Quality of Life Model, par 3, 2005). The Conceptual framework of the Quality of Life has three life domains which are aimed at providing a person to enjoy the more essential potentials of his life. (The Quality of Life Model, par 4, 2005) Each of the three domains has three sub-domains and they are as follows: (a)Ã Ã Ã Being pertains to who one is. Ã Its three sub-domains are: (1) Physical Being, which relates to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s or patientÃ¢â¬â¢s physical health, personal hygiene, nutrition, exercise, grooming and clothing, and general physical appearance; (2) Psychological Being, which relates to his psychological health adjustment, cognitions, feelings, self-esteem, self-concept and self-control; (3) Spiritual Being, which relates to his personal values, personal standards of conduct and spiritual beliefs. (The Quality of Life Model, par. 5, 2005) (b)Ã Ã Belonging pertains to the personÃ¢â¬â¢s connections with his environment. Its three sub-domains are: (1) Physical Belonging, which relates to his connections with his home, work place/school, neighborhood and community; (2) Social Belonging, which relates to his connections with his intimate others, family, friends, co-workers, neighborhood and community; (3) Community Belonging, which relates to his connections with matters pertaining to adequate income, health and social services, employment, educational programs, recreational programs or community events and activities. (The Quality of Life Model, par 5. 2005) (c)Ã Ã Ã Becoming pertains to achieving personal goals, hopes and aspirations. Its three sub-domains are: (1) Practical Becoming, which relates to achieving personal goals in domestic activities, in work, in school or volunteer activities or seeing to health and social needs; (2) Leisure Becoming, relates to activities that promote relaxation and stress reduction; (3) Growth Becoming, relates to activities that promote the maintenance or improvement of knowledge and skill and adapting to change. (The Quality of Life Model, par. 5, 2005) Ferrans Conceptual Model of Quality of Life. Ferrans has developed a model based on the adoption of the individualistic ideology, which recognizes that quality of life depends on the unique experience of individuals. He maintains that the individual person is the only accurate judge of his quality of life because people differ in their perceptions and values. (Ferrans, par. 1, 1996)Ã This model uses qualitative methodology and has identified four domains of quality of life: health and functioning as psychological/spiritual, social and economic, and family. (Ferrans, par 1, 1996)Ã Patient data are analyzed in relation to these domains of quality of life. Researchers, physicians, policy makers adopt the Quality of Life concept as an instrument that tests the validity, reliability and effectiveness of different and relevant sub-domains for the purpose of evaluating the impact of medical interventions on the population (Apolone and Mosconi, p. 68, 1998). Since the concept is considered non-medical determinant, it is treated as confounder, a complementary way for effectiveness of care to a patient. This is because medicine still plays the major role in determining the final health outcome of a patient. (Apolone and Mosconi, p. 68, 1998) Since patients are the proper judge of their quality of life, there are ways to enhance the well-being of patients who may have a poor quality of life.Ã Studies show that the presence of positive feelings in patients is the most important feature of the kind of quality of life he has. Patients, with positive feelings most likely enjoy a pleasant quality of life than those who are in-patients and sick. A person has control of his emotions which can generally affect his state of mental being.Ã It is a matter of developing the positive attitude and containing oneself into thinking of a positive outlook in life.
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
6 Common Preposition Errors 6 Common Preposition Errors Prepositions are tricky words, especially if you speak English as a second language. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re common, mostly short (e.g., at, in and on), and many have several uses, which can make it difficult to know which preposition to use. We wonÃ¢â¬â¢t try to give a full explanation here (that would take a small book). But to help you avoid mistakes, here are six common preposition errors that you may want to watch out for in your own writing. 1. From Morning to Night (In vs. At) With Ã¢â¬Å"inÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"at,Ã¢â¬ the correct term may depend on the time of day! For example, in English we use Ã¢â¬Å"in theÃ¢â¬ with Ã¢â¬Å"morning,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"afternoon,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"evening.Ã¢â¬ But we usually use Ã¢â¬Å"atÃ¢â¬ when talking about the night: Helen goes running in the morning. Tim goes running in the afternoon. Shirley goes running in the evening. Bob goes running at night. You could go for a run Ã¢â¬Å"in the night,Ã¢â¬ but that sounds like something a sporty vampire would do. So make sure to use Ã¢â¬Å"atÃ¢â¬ with Ã¢â¬Å"nightÃ¢â¬ in your writing. 2. Arrivals (In and At vs. To) You can use the preposition Ã¢â¬Å"toÃ¢â¬ for discussing journeys (e.g., Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to TasmaniaÃ¢â¬ ). But with the word Ã¢â¬Å"arrive,Ã¢â¬ we use Ã¢â¬Å"inÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"atÃ¢â¬ to describe reaching a destination. For instance: She arrived in Tasmania just after lunch. He arrived at the restaurant five minutes late. Whether to use Ã¢â¬Å"inÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"atÃ¢â¬ typically depends on the destination: Use Ã¢â¬Å"inÃ¢â¬ for cities, countries or other large areas. Use Ã¢â¬Å"atÃ¢â¬ for specific places (e.g., a library, a bar, or someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s house). 3. Time, Days, Months, and Years (At, On, and In) When referring to a time or date, we use different prepositions depending on the situation. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re talking about a time of day, the correct term is Ã¢â¬Å"atÃ¢â¬ : The party starts at 9pm. For a specific day or date, meanwhile, we use Ã¢â¬Å"onÃ¢â¬ : The party is on Saturday. And for a month or year, the correct preposition is Ã¢â¬Å"inÃ¢â¬ : WeÃ¢â¬â¢re having a party in April. In other words, the preposition depends on the time window in question. 4. Of vs. Have ItÃ¢â¬â¢s common to see the preposition Ã¢â¬Å"ofÃ¢â¬ used alongside helper verbs like Ã¢â¬Å"shouldÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"must.Ã¢â¬ For example: I should of gone to bed earlier. Ã¢Å"â" However, this is an error. The correct word here isnÃ¢â¬â¢t even a preposition. Rather, it should be the verb Ã¢â¬Å"have,Ã¢â¬ which sounds a bit like Ã¢â¬Å"ofÃ¢â¬ when spoken (hence the confusion). Thus, it should say: I should have gone to bed earlier. Ã¢Å"â 5. For vs. Since When talking about how long something has been happening, we use Ã¢â¬Å"forÃ¢â¬ when referring to a length of time (e.g., a period of hours, days, or months): IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been writing for six hours. But if weÃ¢â¬â¢re using a specific time as a point of reference, we use Ã¢â¬Å"sinceÃ¢â¬ : IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been writing since breakfast. The difference here is that the first refers to a measure of time, while the second refers to a fixed point in the past when the activity began. 6. Talking About and Discussing Ã¢â¬Å"TalkingÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"discussingÃ¢â¬ are similar activities, so people often treat these words as interchangeable. However, you should only use the preposition Ã¢â¬Å"aboutÃ¢â¬ after Ã¢â¬Å"talking.Ã¢â¬ For example: WeÃ¢â¬â¢re talking about extreme sports. Ã¢Å"â WeÃ¢â¬â¢re discussing extreme sports. Ã¢Å"â WeÃ¢â¬â¢re discussing about extreme sports. Ã¢Å"â" To make sure youÃ¢â¬â¢ve used all the right terms in all the right places, try submitting a document for proofreading today.
Monday, October 21, 2019
Standard and Normal Excel Distribution Calculations Nearly any statistical software package can be used for calculations concerning a normal distribution, more commonly known as a bell curve.Ã Excel is equipped with a multitude of statistical tables and formulas, and it is quite straightforward to use one of its functions for a normal distribution.Ã We will see how to use the NORM.DIST and the NORM.S.DIST functions in Excel. Normal Distributions There is an infinite number of normal distributions. A normal distribution is defined by a particular function in which two values have been determined: the mean and the standard deviation. The mean is any real number that indicates the center of the distribution. The standard deviation is a positive real number that is a measurement of how spread out the distribution is. Once we know the values of the mean and standard deviation, the particular normal distribution that we are using has been completely determined. The standard normal distribution is one special distribution out of the infinite number of normal distributions. The standard normal distribution has a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. Any normal distribution can be standardized to the standard normal distribution by a simple formula. This is why, typically, the only normal distribution with tabled values is that of the standard normal distribution. This type of table is sometimes referred to as a table of z-scores. NORM.S.DIST The first Excel function that we will examine is the NORM.S.DIST function. This function returns the standard normal distribution. There are two arguments required for the function: Ã¢â¬Å"zÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"cumulative.Ã¢â¬ The first argument of z is the number of standard deviations away from the mean. So,Ã z -1.5 is one and a half standard deviations below the mean. The z-score of z 2 is two standard deviations above the mean. The second argument is that of Ã¢â¬Å"cumulative.Ã¢â¬ There are two possible values that can be entered here: 0 for the value of the probability density function and 1 for the value of the cumulative distribution function. To determine the area under the curve, we will want to enter a 1 here. Example To help to understand how this function works, we will look at an example. If we click on a cell and enter NORM.S.DIST(.25, 1), after hitting enter the cell will contain the value 0.5987, which has been rounded to four decimal places. What does this mean? There are two interpretations. The first is that the area under the curve for z less than or equal to 0.25 is 0.5987. The second interpretation is that 59.87 percent of the area under the curve for the standard normal distribution occurs when z is less than or equal to 0.25. NORM.DIST The second Excel function that we will look at is the NORM.DIST function. This function returns the normal distribution for a specified mean and standard deviation. There are four arguments required for the function: Ã¢â¬Å"x,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"mean,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"standard deviation,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"cumulative.Ã¢â¬ The first argument of x is the observed value of our distribution. The mean and standard deviation are self-explanatory. The last argument of Ã¢â¬Å"cumulativeÃ¢â¬ is identical to that of the NORM.S.DIST function. Example To help to understand how this function works, we will look at an example. If we click on a cell and enter NORM.DIST(9, 6, 12, 1), after hitting enter the cell will contain the value 0.5987, which has been rounded to four decimal places. What does this mean? The values of the arguments tell us that we are working with the normal distribution that has a mean of 6 and a standard deviation of 12. We are trying to determine what percentage of the distribution occurs for x less than or equal to 9. Equivalently, we want the area under the curve of this particular normal distribution and to the left of the vertical line x 9. NORM.S.DIST vs NORM.DIST There are a couple of things to note in the above calculations. We see that the result for each of these calculations was identical. This is because 9 is 0.25 standard deviations above the mean of 6. We could have first converted x 9 into a z-score of 0.25, but the software does this for us. The other thing to note is that we really donÃ¢â¬â¢t need both of these formulas. NORM.S.DIST is a special case of NORM.DIST. If we let the mean equal 0 and the standard deviation equal 1, then the calculations for NORM.DIST match those of NORM.S.DIST. For example, NORM.DIST(2, 0, 1, 1) NORM.S.DIST(2, 1).
Sunday, October 20, 2019
Esperar Conjugation in Spanish, Translation, and Examples Esperar is a common Spanish verb that can mean to hope for, to wait, and to expect. You can figure out which meaning is intended by looking at the context, sentence structure, and whether esperar is followed by a verb in the subjunctive mood. This article explains some of the different uses of esperar in Spanish, as well as esperar conjugations in the present, past, conditional, and future indicative, the present and past subjunctive, the imperative, and other verb forms. Four Ways of Using the Verb Esperar Esperar QueÃ Followed by a Verb The phrase esperar que is typically followed by a verb. If that verb is in the subjunctive mood, esperar can often be understood to mean hope, while if that verb is in the indicative mood, it usually can be understood to mean expect. The use of the indicative mood suggests some degree of certainty, while the subjunctive mood indicates desire. The use of the subjunctive following esperar que is far more common. Also, the following phrases are common: Ã ¡Espero que sÃ ! (I hope so!)Ã ¡Espero que no! (I hope not!) To Wait or To Wait For This is one of the most common meanings of esperar, as seen in the following examples: Por favor espera aquÃ por un momento. (Please wait here for a moment.)Bajaron al andÃ ©n y esperaron el tren. (They stepped down to the platform and waited for the train.)Esperamos la llegada de la policÃ a federal. (We are waiting for the arrival of the federal police.) To Expect This is another common meaning that is determined by the context: El amor llega cuando uno menos lo espera. (Love comes when you least expect it.)Para el 2028 esperamos la llegada de unos 406 mil turistas. (For 2028 we are expecting the arrival of some 406,000 tourists. Note how in some contexts hope for could be a suitable translation.) The phrase estar esperando can be used in the same way as the English to be expecting when referring to pregnancy: Carme ChacÃ ³n confirma que el bebÃ © que est esperando es un niÃ ±o. (Carme Chacon confirms that the baby she is expecting is a boy.) Using EsperarÃ Like Gustar Esperar is sometimes used in a sentence with inverted word order, like gustar and some other verbs. A better translation in such cases is await: Al dÃ ³lar le esperan tiempos peores. (Worse times await the dollar.)Me espera una vida nueva en algÃ ºn lugar del mundo.Ã (A new life awaits me somewhere in the world.)Ã ¿QuÃ © avances tecnolÃ ³gicos nos esperan en el futuro? (What technological advancements await in the future? Present Indicative Esperar is conjugated in the same way as other regular -ar verbs. Yo espero Yo espero el autobÃ ºs por la maÃ ±ana. I wait for the bus in the morning. TÃ º esperas TÃ º esperas a tu amigo en el aeropuerto. You wait for your friend at the airport. Usted/Ã ©l/ella espera Ella espera triunfar en la competencia. She hopes to succeed in the competition. Nosotros esperamos Nosotros esperamos verte pronto. We hope to see you soon. Vosotros esperis Vosotros esperis al bebÃ © para agosto. You expect the baby in August. Ustedes/ellos/ellas esperan Ellos esperan lluvia esta tarde. They expect rain this afternoon. Preterite Indicative The preterite tense is used to talk about events that happened in the past and have been completed. Yo esperÃ © Yo esperÃ © el autobÃ ºs por la maÃ ±ana. I waited for the bus in the morning. TÃ º esperaste TÃ º esperaste a tu amigo en el aeropuerto. You waited for your friend at the airport. Usted/Ã ©l/ella esperÃ ³ Ella esperÃ ³ triunfar en la competencia. She hoped to succeed in the competition. Nosotros esperamos Nosotros esperamos verte pronto. We hoped to see you soon. Vosotros esperasteis Vosotros esperasteis al bebÃ © para agosto. You expected the baby in August. Ustedes/ellos/ellas esperaron Ellos esperaron lluvia esta tarde. They expected rain this afternoon. Imperfect Indicative The imperfect tense is used to talk about actions in the past that were ongoing or repeated, and it can be translated to English as was waiting or used to wait. Yo esperaba Yo esperaba el autobÃ ºs por la maÃ ±ana. I used to wait for the bus in the morning. TÃ º esperabas TÃ º esperabas a tu amigo en el aeropuerto. You used to wait for your friend at the airport. Usted/Ã ©l/ella esperaba Ella esperaba triunfar en la competencia. She was hopingto succeed in the competition. Nosotros esperbamos Nosotros esperbamos verte pronto. We were hopingto see you soon. Vosotros esperabais Vosotros esperabais al bebÃ © para agosto. You were expecting the baby in August. Ustedes/ellos/ellas esperaban Ellos esperaban lluvia esta tarde. They were expecting rain this afternoon. Future Indicative Yo esperarÃ © Yo esperarÃ © el autobÃ ºs por la maÃ ±ana. I will wait for the bus in the morning. TÃ º esperars TÃ º esperars a tu amigo en el aeropuerto. You will wait for your friend at the airport. Usted/Ã ©l/ella esperar Ella esperar triunfar en la competencia. She will hopeto succeed in the competition. Nosotros esperaremos Nosotros esperaremos verte pronto. We will hopeto see you soon. Vosotros esperarÃ ©is Vosotros esperarÃ ©is al bebÃ © para agosto. You will expect the baby in August. Ustedes/ellos/ellas esperarn Ellos esperarn lluvia esta tarde. They will expect rain this afternoon. PeriphrasticÃ Future IndicativeÃ The periphrastic future is sometimes called the near future and is translated to English as going to verb. Yo voy a esperar Yo voya esperar el autobÃ ºs por la maÃ ±ana. I am going to wait for the bus in the morning. TÃ º vasa esperar TÃ º vasa esperar a tu amigo en el aeropuerto. You aregoing to wait for your friend at the airport. Usted/Ã ©l/ella va a esperar Ella vaa esperar triunfar en la competencia. She isgoing to hopeto succeed in the competition. Nosotros vamosa esperar Nosotros vamosa esperar verte pronto. We aregoing to hopeto see you soon. Vosotros vaisa esperar Vosotros vaisa esperaral bebÃ © para agosto. You aregoing to expect the baby for August. Ustedes/ellos/ellas vana esperar Ellos vana esperar lluvia esta tarde. They aregoing to expect rain this afternoon. Present Progressive/Gerund Form The verb form that ends in -ing in English is called the gerund or present participle in Spanish. It is often used to form progressive tenses like the present progressive. Present Progressive ofEsperar est esperando Ella est esperando triunfar en la competencia. She is expecting to succeed in the competition. Past Participle In Spanish, the past participle usually ends in -ado or -ido, and is used to form perfect tenses like the present perfect. Present Perfect of Esperar ha esperado Ella ha esperado triunfar en la competencia. She has expected to succeed in the competition. Esperar Conditional Indicative The conditional tense is used to talk about possibilities, and is usually translated to English as would verb. Yo esperarÃ a Yo esperarÃ a el autobÃ ºs por la maÃ ±ana si me despertara temprano. I would wait for the bus in the morning if I were to wake up early . TÃ º esperarÃ as TÃ º esperarÃ as a tu amigo en el aeropuerto si te viniera a visitar. You would wait for your friend at the airport if he came to visit you. Usted/Ã ©l/ella esperarÃ a Ella esperarÃ a triunfar en la competencia, pero no es optimista. She would hopeto succeed in the competition, but she is not optimistic. Nosotros esperarÃ amos Nosotros esperarÃ amos verte pronto, pero sabemos que es complicado. We would hopeto see you soon, but we know it is complicated. Vosotros esperarÃ ais Vosotros esperarÃ ais al bebÃ © para agosto si lo dijera el doctor. You would expect the baby in August if the doctor said so. Ustedes/ellos/ellas esperarÃ an Ellos esperarÃ an lluvia esta tarde si el pronÃ ³stico lo indicara. They would expect rain this afternoon if the forecast were to indicate it. Esperar Present Subjunctive Que yo espere Mi madre sugiere que yo espere el autobÃ ºs por la maÃ ±ana. My mother suggests that I wait for the bus in the morning. Que tÃ º esperes Marta pide que tÃ º esperes a tu amigo en el aeropuerto. Marta asks that you wait for your friend at the airport. Que usted/Ã ©l/ella espere El entrenador recomienda que ella espere triunfar en la competencia. The coach recommends that she hope to succeed in the competition. Que nosotros esperemos Erica desea que nosotros esperemos verte pronto. Erica wishes that we hope to see you soon. Que vosotros esperÃ ©is El mÃ ©dico recomienda que vosotros esperÃ ©is al bebÃ © para agosto. The doctor recommends that you expect the baby in August. Que ustedes/ellos/ellas esperen El meteorÃ ³logo sugiere que ellos esperen lluvia esta tarde. The meteorologist suggests that they expect rain this afternoon. Esperar Imperfect Subjunctive There are two different ways for conjugating the imperfect subjunctive. The first option below is more common. Option 1 Que yo esperara Mi madre sugerÃ a que yo esperara el autobÃ ºs por la maÃ ±ana. My mother suggested that I wait for the bus in the morning. Que tÃ º esperaras Marta pidiÃ ³ que tÃ º esperaras a tu amigo en el aeropuerto. Marta asked that you wait for your friend at the airport. Que usted/Ã ©l/ella esperara El entrenador recomendaba que ella esperara triunfar en la competencia. The coach recommended that she hope to succeed in the competition. Que nosotros esperramos Erica deseaba que nosotros esperramos verte pronto. Erica wished that we hope to see you soon. Que vosotros esperarais El mÃ ©dico recomendÃ ³ que vosotros esperarais al bebÃ © para agosto. The doctor recommended that you expect the baby in August. Que ustedes/ellos/ellas esperaran El meteorÃ ³logo sugiriÃ ³ que ellos esperaran lluvia esta tarde. The meteorologist suggested that they expect rain this afternoon. Option 2 Que yo esperase Mi madre sugerÃ a que yo esperase el autobÃ ºs por la maÃ ±ana. My mother suggested that I wait for the bus in the morning. Que tÃ º esperases Marta pidiÃ ³ que tÃ º esperases a tu amigo en el aeropuerto. Marta asked that you wait for your friend at the airport. Que usted/Ã ©l/ella esperase El entrenador recomendaba que ella esperase triunfar en la competencia. The coach recommended that she hope to succeed in the competition. Que nosotros espersemos Erica deseaba que nosotros espersemos verte pronto. Erica wished that we hope to see you soon. Que vosotros esperaseis El mÃ ©dico recomendÃ ³ que vosotros esperaseis al bebÃ © para agosto. The doctor recommended that you expect the baby in August. Que ustedes/ellos/ellas esperasen El meteorÃ ³logo sugiriÃ ³ que ellos esperasen lluvia esta tarde. The meteorologist suggested that they expect rain this afternoon. Esperar Imperative The imperative mood is used to give commands, and it has both positive and negative forms. Positive Commands TÃ º espera Ã ¡Espera a tu amigo en el aeropuerto! Wait for your friend at the airport! Usted espere Ã ¡Espere triunfar en la competencia! Hope to succeed in the competition! Nosotros esperemos Ã ¡Esperemos verte pronto! Let's hope to see you soon! Vosotros esperad Ã ¡Esperad al bebÃ © para agosto! Expect the baby in August! Ustedes esperen Ã ¡Esperen lluvia esta tarde! Expect rain this afternoon! Negative Commands TÃ º no esperes Ã ¡No esperes a tu amigo en el aeropuerto! Don't wait for your friend at the airport! Usted no espere Ã ¡No espere triunfar en la competencia! Don't hope to succeed in the competition! Nosotros no esperemos Ã ¡No esperemos verte pronto! Let's not hope to see you soon! Vosotros no esperÃ ©is Ã ¡No esperÃ ©is al bebÃ © para agosto! Don't expect the baby in August! Ustedes no esperen Ã ¡No esperen lluvia esta tarde! Don't expect rain this afternoon!