Sunday, November 17, 2019
Symbolic Debate in AI versus Connectionist - Competing or Complementar Essay
Symbolic Debate in AI versus Connectionist - Competing or Complementary - Essay Example If the aim of human-oriented Artificial Intelligence is to develop common sense, an extreme example of the purely symbolic approach is to be seen in the Cyc project. Here, common-sense rules inferred from the everyday world are hard-coded into the system such that it will be able to handle any type of situation. And it is in this Ã¢â¬Å"extremely symbolicÃ¢â¬ approach that the worst failures of that approach will probably be seen: forget one fact, and the system crashes, with nothing to lean back on.On the other hand, best-suited to the connectionist approach are models of the brain at the micro-level. The brain is, after all, a neural networkÃ¢â¬âliterally. The problem here is that we get a working model, but with a very little description of what is actually going on inside, and the question begs to be asked (by connectionists, of course): why model it if it cannot be explained?The natural thought is that there must be some way the two systems can Ã¢â¬Å"co-operate.Ã¢â¬ Co nsider an interesting problem, one that may seem far-fetched but which is good enough to serve as an example: that of nonsense translation, as in Ã¢â¬Å"English French German Suite,Ã¢â¬ quoted in GÃ ¶del, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (Douglas Hofstadter, 1979, page 366). Here, a translation into German by Robert Scott of Lewis CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s Jabberwocky is presented. The English stanzaÃ¢â¬â¢Twas brillig, and the slithy tovesÃ¢â¬ ¦All mimsy were the borogoves,And the mome raths outgrabe.Ã¢â¬ Gets translated into the German asÃ¢â¬Å"Es Brillig war. Die schlichten TovenÃ¢â¬ ¦Und aller-mÃ ¼msige BurggovenDie MÃ ¶hmen RÃ ¤thÃ¢â¬â¢ ausgraben.Ã¢â¬ Consider Ã¢â¬Å"outgrabeÃ¢â¬ : how would one Ã¢â¬Å"translateÃ¢â¬ it into German? It turns out that Ã¢â¬Å"outÃ¢â¬ is Ã¢â¬Å"ausÃ¢â¬ in German, and Ã¢â¬Å"grabÃ¢â¬ sounds perfectly German; add to that the common German Ã¢â¬Å"-enÃ¢â¬ suffix and one gets Ã¢â¬Å"ausgraben.Ã¢â¬ Similar principles apply to the translation of all the nonsense words here.